The impact of providing two years of pre-kindergarten on academic performance and cost benefits in the San Antonio Independent School District.
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Ozuna, Tambrey Johnson.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the academic performance of students who attended two years of pre-kindergarten in San Antonio Independent School District (SAISD), and to determine if there was a cost benefit for the district in providing an additional year of pre-kindergarten. Previous research studies have shown that participation in a high-quality pre-kindergarten can have both positive academic and social outcomes (Barnett, 2005; Gormley, Phillips, & Gayer, 2008; Ramey, Ramey, & Stokes, 2009; Reynolds & Temple, 1998; Saluja, Early, & Clifford, 2001; Schweinhart, 2004; Wong, Cook, Barnett, & Jung, 2008). However, these studies focused only on 4-year-olds who attended pre-kindergarten for one year. This study addressed the participation of 3-year-olds in the SAISD pre-kindergarten program. The academic performance of students who attended pre-kindergarten for two years was analyzed along with those who attended one year of pre-kindergarten and those who did not participate in pre-kindergarten at all. Students in all three study groups were those that had been continuously enrolled in SAISD from their point of entry into school through third grade. Academic performance was analyzed based on participants' results on the Texas Primary Reading Inventory and the third grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in reading and mathematics. In addition, the expenditures and cost benefits associated with providing the pre-kindergarten program were analyzed, as well as the costs associated with retention, special education, and remediation.