Determining the molecular mechanism of carbamate resistance in Anopheles stephensi in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Malaria persists as a significant obstacle to public health around the world, sparking interest in methods focusing on disease vectors. Insecticide methods aim to lower rates of infection via mosquito vectors but have led to increases in insecticide resistance when utilized for long periods of time. Here, I investigate the correlation between carbamate resistance and the ace-1R mutation in the invasive species of Anopheles stephensi in the Ethiopian city of Dire Dawa and the biological relevance of the proposed area surrounding the mutation. 24 An. stephensi mosquitoes were selected and exposed to bendiocarb and propoxur. Tajima’s D tested for selection among the resistant and susceptible populations. Fst values were used to evaluate if the genetic variation between them was influenced by demographic changes. None of the samples possessed the mutation, and the values for the Tajima’s D analysis (-0.05 for resistant and -0.98 for susceptible) as well as the Fst analysis (-0.02 for ace-1 and -0.01 for COI) were not statistically significant. The absence of the ace-1R mutation, the lack of evidence of selection, and lack of genetic differentiation suggest that the ace-1 gene is not a significant factor in resistance. Future studies should look at performing similar analyses in other Ethiopian sites and gene candidates due to the lack of significant differentiation between the two groups.