The Influence of Neurofeedback Training on Verbal Episodic Memory in a TBI Sample
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are commonly characterized by neural changes that impair physical, behavioral, and cognitive functioning across diverse ages and demographics. Cognitive complaints frequently include memory difficulties, with deficits in episodic memory greatly impairing daily functioning. Although various interventions and rehabilitation techniques have been implemented for TBI, limited treatment options are available for TBI-driven memory complaints. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, the use of EEG neurofeedback training (NFT) on verbal episodic memory was explored in 12 veterans with TBI. Results suggest that immediate recall scores improved following NFT, as measured by the California Verbal Learning Task-II. We also observed increased resting-state functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the inferior temporal lobe following NFT, which may represent an underlying mechanism of memory improvement. These exploratory findings may hold promise for future research on the use of NFT for memory enhancement in various populations.