Information systems in emergency management applications : evolution and integration of spatial technologies.
Data within a Traditional Information System (TIS) is advantageous to Emergency Management (EM) activities, though an inherent weakness of requiring the manual interpretation of data associated with TIS delays response and planning activities. EM practitioners have begun integrating the analytical and visualization capabilities associated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into operational planning and response. Within each phase of EM, GIS has been instrumental in assisting in the location and identification of potential hazards, mitigation needs, and preparedness efforts, and aiding in efficient response and short-term and long-term recovery efforts. GIS provides a capability to access information based on the geographic location, and displays dynamic data for situational awareness and decision support.