A Partial Test of Zhang’s Stain Theory of Suicide: Athletic Involvement and Family Connectedness as Moderators of Relative Deprivation and Suicidal Ideation in the ABCD Study
The purpose of this study was to conduct a partial test of Zhang’s Strain Theory of Suicide by examining whether athletic involvement and social connectedness moderate relations between relative deprivation and suicidal ideation in adolescents. It was hypothesized that relative deprivation would be related to the likelihood of suicidal ideation and this association would be moderated by athletic involvement and social connectedness. Specifically, it was expected that greater athletic involvement and stronger social connectedness would weaken this association compared to lower levels of athletic involvement and social connectedness. To test these hypotheses, moderation analyses were conducted using data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Results partially supported the hypotheses. Relative deprivation was associated with suicidal ideation, and while social connectedness (measured via family cohesion) significantly moderated this association, results were not in the predicted direction. Moreover, athletic involvement did not moderate associations between relative deprivation and suicidal ideation.