Phanerozoic trends in the ecological tolerance of Lingula and extinction selectivity of marine invertebrates.


Environmental affinity analyses of Lingula throughout the Phanerozoic for depth, lithology, grainsize, and latitude using three different affinity metrics reveal that lingulids have high ecological tolerance relative to other brachiopods and marine invertebrates. Lingulids were generalist with regards to depth, grainsize, and latitude, and were siliciclastic specialists throughout much of the Phanerozoic. Generalist behavior was observed for all four metrics following certain mass extinction events such as the end-Permian mass extinction. Logistic regression analyses reveal that generalists and specialists are selected for during many extinction and background times throughout the Phanerozoic. Depth and Lithology ecological tolerance were the most significant determinants of extinction risk. Taxa with a high depth or lithology tolerance were more likely to survive many extinction events, whereas specialist selectivity is more common during background intervals. Overall, ecological tolerance plays a role in determining extinction risk over geologic time and the high ecological tolerance of Lingula could provide a mechanism for its longevity and success following mass extinction events.



Ecological tolerance. Quantitative paleobiology. Lingulid brachiopods. Extinction selectivity. Environmental affinity.