Initial Development and Validation of the Elementary Student Engagement Survey (ESES)
Student engagement has been researched from multiple perspectives in the literature due to its impact on academic attainment and other variables of interest. However, most of the research has focused on grades above elementary school, leaving a gap on student engagement at the elementary level. This study reports on the psychometrics of a newly developed student engagement instrument for elementary school. The hypothesis assumes that student engagement for elementary school students is a metaconstruct comprised of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional metaconstructs. This instrument named The Elementary Student Engagement Survey (ESES) instrument was piloted employing a sample of 202 minors.