The Effect of Music on Biomolecule Production and Listening Satisfaction




Fan, Jessica

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Listening to music is enjoyable, but can it do more for the human body than satisfy the ears? This thesis examines the effects of music with a literature review through a biological lens, focusing on how listening to and producing music can affect levels of cortisol, beta-endorphin, oxytocin, and various components of the immune system, as well as what effects these species have on the body. Additionally, it includes a survey exploring how tuning frequency affects listening satisfaction and how one’s area of study (specifically, science or music) may influence one’s preference. Continued support for tuning to 432 Hz despite the current tuning standard of 440 Hz inspired this investigation into the physical qualities of music and its effects on the listener. The results of this survey were inconclusive, perhaps because the sample size was not large enough and the ratio of science to music majors was not representative.



Biology., Music., Tuning frequency., Science and music.