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ItemA 2007 aircraft-based study of plumes from biomass burning origin from Mexico and Central America advected over south Texas and the western Gulf of Mexico.(2009-06-10T12:57:33Z) Alvarez, Sergio L.; Shauck, Maxwell Eustace.; Air Science.; Baylor University. Institute for Air Science.Biomass burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation which includes grasslands, forests, and agricultural lands (Levin, 1998). It is a global phenomenon and serves a multitude of purposes such as clearing of forests and brushland for agricultural use; control of weeds; production of charcoal; and energy production for cooking and heating (Crutzen and Andreae, 1990). The Baylor Institute for Air Science (BIAS) equipped an aircraft to measure trace gases and aerosols during two science flights in the south Texas region. One science flight was flown to collect "background" continental and marine layer air data and the other to collect data in biomass-burning smoke plumes from Mexico and Central American countries. Measurements were taken in the geographic region along the US-Mexico Border and adjacent area over the western Gulf of Mexico. Results of this study indicate that individual smoke plumes may occur episodically over the Texas border region to Mexico under prevailing southeasterly wind directions. The origin of these plumes may be diverse ranging from individual local fire emissions to medium range transport of biomass burning. ItemA cognitive poetic exploration of Elena Poniatowska’s La noche de Tlatelolco.(2021-05-04) Boyd, Megan Michelle, 1996-; McNair, Alexander J.This study of Elena Poniatowska’s La noche de Tlateloco is based on a cognitive poetic approach to explore readers’ perceptions of the work. It affirms both the historical veracity and literary ingenuity of the text by highlighting literary elements and asserting that they strengthen rather than weaken readers’ historical understanding of the censured collective trauma. This study applies theories of readers’ literary perceptions to investigate the work as a sensorially immersive experience. It analyzes the emotional atmospheres in “Ganar la calle” and “La noche de Tlatelolco” by highlighting cognitive qualities of emotions within the text. It then postulates that the creative presentation of La noche draws readers’ attention to historical silences and immerses them into parts of the past often overlooked by conventional historiography. ItemA comparison between an inventive present perfect and the preterite.(2020-04-08) Booth, Olivia C., 1996-; McManness, Linda M.Based on research evidence proving the evolution and expansion of uses of the present perfect tense, a comparison between the preterite and the present perfect should be acknowledged and instructed in the Spanish language classroom. Though they are taught separately, the present perfect and the preterite tenses overlap with regard to their functions and characteristics. Such an overlap confirms the value of an established comparison in the Spanish language classroom. The present study first provides an objective description of the uses of both the present perfect and the preterite tenses. Second, research investigations focused on the present perfect uses in Spain, Latin America, and Mexico will prove the inventiveness of present perfect uses. Finally, data collected from local news articles in the regions of Spain, Latin America, and Mexico are used to present the varying percentages of the present perfect versus preterite usage. ItemA multisensory approach to reading instruction in both English and Spanish.(2022-05-10) Bryant-Hassler, Chelsea J., 1996-; McManness, Linda M.Around 10 million students all over the world have difficulties learning to read, but 90% of these students can overcome their challenges with proper intervention. Orton-Gillingham Multisensory Instruction is a teaching approach that has been tested and proven to be beneficial for struggling readers in English. The goal of this study is to bring awareness to the positive effects of the OG approach and to propose a similar method be created for the Spanish language which could greatly contribute to the field of bilingual education. The research implemented in this study supported the belief that teaching phonological awareness is beneficial in both languages further supporting bilingual instruction. As educators, we are charged with guiding all children to grow in mind and character even though we all have unique gifts, talents and learning styles. ItemA pragmalinguistic analysis of missed opportunities for building rapport in interpreted medical interviews with Spanish-speaking patients.(2016-03-14) Allison, Abigail Jordan, 1990-; Hardin, Karol J.Interpreted medical discourse presents significant challenges for communication because portions of the original message are often reduced, omitted, or revised (Aranguri, Davidson, & Ramirez, 2006), particularly by lay interpreters. Linguistic devices that contribute to rapport and politeness, such as mitigation, are often perceived as unimportant or unnecessary and are therefore omitted. Thus, when messages are conveyed without interpretation of politeness and rapport attempts, pragmatic issues and misunderstandings occur. The present investigation analyzed 43 transcriptions of interpreted medical consultations previously recorded at a family medicine clinic in Central Texas. The analysis quantified which rapport-building attempts most frequently occurred but were not interpreted and examined specific and general effects of noninterpretation, as well as potential consequences for physician-patient communication and rapport. ItemCompliments and politeness among Mexican and Puerto Rican couples.(2011-05-12T15:22:07Z) Carruth, Melissa D.; Hardin, Karol J.; Modern Foreign Languages.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.This paper explores the speech act of complimenting among Mexican and Puerto Rican couples. The study applies Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory (1987) in analyzing spontaneous, face-to-face compliment giving between each romantic couple of the same nationality, that is, Mexican or Puerto Rican. Following Holmes (1986), it examines compliments according to their form, function, and topic. Results are compared with previous studies in the field. The results show that dialect, education level and gender of the speaker influence the style and delivery of compliments. In addition, the results show that both Mexican and Puerto Rican females in this data set initiated compliments and gave more compliments than the male Mexican and Puerto Rican participants. Mexican males spoke the least and gave fewer compliments. Puerto Rican males spoke more than any other group and gave the most compliments. Underlying values and explanations for these results are discussed. ItemThe death of Celestina : "othering" in changing times.(2011-05-12T15:50:27Z) Stanislaw, Casey D.; Larson, Paul Earl.; Modern Foreign Languages.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.La Celestina, as the definitive literary work of its period, portrays in microcosm the destructive forces at work within a Spanish society which was successful on the exterior but unraveling at its core as it transitioned from medieval to modern times. The definitive and pivotal moment within the tragicomedia is the murder of its central character, perpetrated by two servants seeking their share of the loot extorted from their master. On the surface the murder can be viewed as a moralistic tale of greed, but upon closer observation we find a depiction of larger social forces at work and that Celestina’s death is something wholly new and unexpected which not only portrays a society losing its moral compass but announces the end of the medieval period and the advent of the modern. ItemDeveloping a Spanish for Heritage Speakers Program for universities in Texas.(2013-09-16) Woodard, Andrea Ruth.; McManness, Linda M.; Modern Foreign Languages.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that 37.6% of the persons in Texas were of Hispanic or Latino origin, up from 32.0% in 2000. As demographic trends across Texas show growing Hispanic populations, universities face increasingly Hispanic classrooms. For university-level Spanish programs, this increase demands a response to the fundamental learning differences between Spanish heritage speakers and foreign language learners. While some universities have implemented Spanish for Heritage Speakers (SHS) Programs, there exists a continuing need for state-wide expansion. This thesis argues for the development of SHS Programs in Texas by presenting various approaches to the teaching of SHS and by investigating the success of those already existing programs. This study provides a basis for the development of such a program, using the ACTFL Position Statement on Language Learning for Heritage and Native Speakers. Finally, the thesis proposes the development of these programs on a state-wide level. ItemEl desarraigo en la narrativa latinoamericana de la segunda mitad del siglo XX : el caso de Juan Rulfo = Unhomeliness in the Latin American narrative of the second half of the 20th Century : the case of Juan Rulfo.(2021-04-23) Escamilla, Patricia E., 1978-; García-Corales, Guillermo.En base a una perspectiva analítica ecléctica con énfasis en la crítica cultural, esta tesis analiza el concepto del desarraigo que se reitera en textos narrativos latinoamericanos publicados a partir de la segunda parte del siglo XX. En especial, examina la trayectoria de este concepto en los cuentos “No oyes ladrar los perros”, “¡Diles que no me maten!” y “Luvina” del mexicano Juan Rulfo. Este análisis propone que los textos estudiados se refieren de manera relevante a diversas expresiones del desarraigo en el contexto latinoamericano, exponiéndolo como uno de los conceptos más significativos de la narrativa del continente. En este sentido, la presente tesis propone que dichas narrativas anuncian uno de los elementos más significativos de la condición existencial del sujeto contemporáneo global correspondiente a su condición de desarraigado territorial, político, social, familiar y psicológico. = Based on an eclectic analytical perspective, with an emphasis on cultural criticism, this thesis analyzes the concept of unhomeliness reiterated throughout Latin American narratives published in the second half of the 20th century. Specifically, it examines this concept’s trajectory in the short stories, “No oyes ladrar los perros”, “¡Diles que no me maten!” and “Luvina” from the Mexican author Juan Rulfo. This analysis proposes that the studied texts make relevant references to diverse expressions of unhomeliness in the Latin American context, establishing it as one of the continent’s most significant narrative concepts. In this respect, the present thesis proposes that such narratives inform one of the most significant elements of the global contemporary subject’s existential condition as it corresponds with their state of territorial, political, social, and familial displacement. ItemEl impulso ético en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XXI = The ethical impulse in the Latin American narrative of the 21st century.(2016-03-31) Schlichting, Kelsey L., 1991-; García-Corales, Guillermo.Esta tesis analiza el impulso ético en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XXI. Examina en profundidad los cuentos “Santa Fe” de Alejandra Costamagna, “Imágenes photoshop” de Edmundo Paz Soldán y “Horses in the Smoke” de Carol Bensimon. Estos textos representan mundos ficticios que incluyen rasgos de la condición posmoderna, tales como el individualismo extremo, la sobreutilización de la tecnología y el consumismo excesivo. Cada narrativa presenta una indagación en las relaciones humanas que motivan a los personajes a actuar de manera ética en el sentido de responder a los deseos y las necesidades del otro vulnerable. Esta noción ética de la responsabilidad hacia el otro, en las circunstancias de características absurdas y distópicas que se representan en los textos narrativos analizados, se deduce de los planteamientos que provienen de críticos literarios, filósofos y líderes religiosos, entre los cuales se encuentran Emmanuel Levinas y el Papa Francisco. The objective of this thesis is to analyze the ethical impulse in the Latin American narrative of the 21st century. To this effect, this study examines three works representative of the contemporary short story in depth: “Santa Fe” by Alejandra Costamagna, “Imágenes photoshop” by Edmundo Paz Soldán, and “Horses in the Smoke” by Carol Bensimon. These texts exemplify fictitious worlds that encompass elements of the postmodern condition, such as extreme individualism, overindulgent use of technology, and excessive consumerism. In the presence of these, each narrative portrays an investigation of human relationships that provoke the characters to respond in an ethical manner by prioritizing the desires and needs of the vulnerable other. This ethical notion of the responsibility toward the other, in circumstances with absurd and dystopian characteristics that are depicted in the analyzed narrative texts, is deduced from the concepts that stem from literary critics, philosophers, and religious leaders, amongst which Emmanuel Levinas and Pope Francis are found. ItemEl nuevo historicismo y la otredad en la narrativa contemporánea nicaragüense: el caso de Sergio Ramírez.(2006-07-30T14:06:16Z) Tipton, Keny Elizabeth.; García-Corales, Guillermo.; Spanish.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.En la presente tesis se analiza la narrativa nueva-histórica del autor nicaragüense Sergio Ramírez (1942), la cual consideramos como una de las tres tendencias fundamentales de la literatura latinoamericana contemporánea junto con la literatura de mujeres y la narrativa detectivesca. Nuestro análisis, de carácter ecléctico, inclinado hacia la crítica ideológica nuevo-historicista que proponen Fernando Aínsa, María Cristina Pons y Seymour Menton, y que considera la noción del otro propuesta por Renato Martínez Torres, incluye una lectura detallada de tres de las novelas más recientes de Ramírez: Margarita, está linda la mar (1998), Sombras nada más (2002) y Mil y una muertes (2004). Proponemos que estos textos narrativos desafían el discurso absolutista de la historiografía oficial reemplazándolo con las voces del otro, el cual emerge como una figura central de los relatos. Hemos concluido que las novelas consideradas en esta tesis expresan una lucha ideológica entre verdad histórica y ficcionalización histórica que incluye una lucha entre el discurso desatendido del otro y el discurso totalizador de los que ostentan el poder. ItemThe evolving narrator in the Spanish novel (1884-1958) : La de Bringas, Niebla, and Entre visillos.(2013-09-16) Muir, Jane, 1989-; Blackwell, Frieda Hilda.; Modern Foreign Languages.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.The function of the narrator in Spanish literature is evolving, but the narrative voice continues to play a crucial role in communicating the message of the work, whether forcefully, playfully, or subtly. La de Bringas (1884), by Benito Pérez Galdós, exemplifies the Realist movement with its monolithic, intrusive narrator who mocks his society and those around him, yet the narrator also ironizes himself and undercuts his narrative though unreliable narrating. Part of the Generation of 1898, Niebla (1914), by Miguel de Unamuno, is ostensibly narrated by the author, yet this fictive Unamuno enters into the text to converse with his characters; the narrative innovation reflects the work’s philosophical approach, which deals with questions of individual authentic existence. Entre visillos (1958), written by Carmen Martín Gaite in a time of strict censorship, uses multiple narrators in a Social Realist style that critiques its oppressive society between the lines. ItemThe existential search for national, individual and spiritual identity in selected works of Miguel de Unamuno.(2008-06-10T12:39:14Z) Rice-Mills, Faith A.; Blackwell, Frieda Hilda.; Spanish.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.Miguel de Unamuno, a well-known twentieth century Spanish writer and member of the Generation of ’98, exemplified the human struggle with collective and individual identity in many of his essays, dramas and novels. As a young writer, he and the other noventayochistas posed the question “who are we” to the Spanish people as they sought national identity and the true meaning of being Spanish. Later, Unamuno questioned individual purpose in life as well as the role of human life in relation to a divine Creator. One of Unamuno’s best known compilations of essays, En torno al casticismo (1912), addresses the question of “who are we” in reference to Spanish national identity, while two of his best known novels, Niebla (1914) and San Manuel Bueno, Mártir (1931), utilize the existential struggles of the protagonists to examine the questions and often tentative answers to the personal and spiritual existential quest for identity. ItemExploring questions of Spanish national identity in selected works of Miguel de Unamuno, Azorín, and Antonio Machado.(2012-08-08) Natividad, Ross D.; Blackwell, Frieda Hilda.; Spanish.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.Critics of La Generación de 1898 claim that the group’s aims were purely philosophical and intellectual – thus having no practical applications for the country. However, a careful examination of the respective works by Miguel de Unamuno, Azorín, and Antonio Machado indeed reveal how each author specifically strove to rediscover and to resolve the issue of Spanish national identity. A nation is a collective identity engendered by a united moral consciousness. Thus, acting as nation-builders to a nation suffering from longstanding decadence, confusion, and humiliation, these noventaochistas not only offered diverse interpretations of Spanish identity during the crises at the end of the nineteenth century but also sought to awaken the moral consciousness they believed Spaniards were seeking. ItemExploring the metaphoric value of idioms : a taxonomy of Spanish conceptual metaphors and idioms.(2016-03-30) Myers, Paige M., 1988-; Hardin, Karol J.In 1980, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson challenged the traditional view of metaphors by showing their prevalence in everyday speech. Instead of a literary device, Lakoff and Johnson proposed that metaphors are commonly used to connect two concepts because humans employ a metaphoric thought process that allows us to understand one abstract entity in terms of another. Evidence of these “conceptual metaphors” is found in linguistic manifestations that demonstrate a metaphorical mapping from one domain onto another. Many investigations have further examined conceptual metaphors in various languages in order to understand cultural and linguistic implications. The present study first examines current literature to find previously identified conceptual metaphors for Spanish, then uses Spanish idioms as data to offer support for already known conceptual metaphors and to aid in the identification of new ones. Finally, all are combined in a taxonomy of Spanish conceptual metaphors and idioms. ItemForeign language learning: an exploratory study on the external and internal influences affecting success.(2006-07-24T19:46:50Z) Johnson, Brianne J.; McManness, Linda M.; Modern Foreign Languages.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.This study explores the influence that determinants such as age, length of exposure, learning environment, personality, attitude, study habits, personal practice, and personal motivation have on individuals studying a foreign language. Participants provide feedback on their own experiences while learning a foreign language to ascertain which elements are most influential in predicting future success in the areas of oral production, written production, aural comprehension, and reading comprehension. ItemGestos posmodernos en la novela latinoamericana: los casos de Cristina Rivera Garza, Ana Maria Shua y Laura Restrepo.(2006-07-24T22:03:53Z) Lopez, Seir.; García-Corales, Guillermo.; Spanish.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.Proponemos en esta tesis que las novelas La muerte como efecto secundario (1997) de Ana María Shua (1951), La cresta de llión (2003) de Cristina Rivera Garza (1961) y Delirio (2004) de Laura Restrepo (1955) exhiben gestos posmodernos que enfatizan la dislocación del sujeto, la duda con respecto al concepto de la verdad y la subversión radical del orden ideológico y cultural. Estos textos narrativos cuestionan los valores modernos fundados en la razón, las ideologías fundamentalistas y las utopías tradicionales. El marco teórico de este estudio es de carácter ecléctico, inclinado hacia la crítica ideológica que incluye las teorías relacionadas con la condición posmoderna sobre el discurso esquizofrénico que desarrolla Fredric Jameson, las expresiones del concepto del poder de Michel Foucault y el pensamiento rizomático propuesto por Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari. Además, utilizamos las teorías de carnavalización de Mijail Bajtín para abordar la escena posmoderna del mundo al revés. ItemHeritage and second language learner perception of Spanish pronunciation.(2020-04-17) Sangster Garza, Rachel, 1995-; Hardin, Karol J.Spanish heritage language (HL) learners demonstrate measurable differences in their production and accent when compared to both native speakers (NS) and second language (L2) learners of Spanish (Montrul, 2011; Potowski, 2009; Rao, 2014; Shea, 2019). This research sought to continue study in phonological perception by testing HL learners’ assessments of other speakers. The results suggest that differing language experience of L2 and HL learners of Spanish is associated with their perceptions of the proficiency, native-like accent, and language identity of other speakers. Findings also suggest that HL learners and NS are less likely than L2 learners to focus on phonetics when identifying the language proficiency, accent, and identity of Spanish speakers and they respond more favorably to other speakers’ proficiency and accent when compared to L2 learners. This thesis contributes to our understanding of perception and addresses the need for additional research in this area or heritage linguistics. ItemHuman rights and social injustice in Nadie me vera llorar's Mexico of 1880-1930.(2022-05-06) Gomez Lopez, Gabriela, 1997-; McNair, Alexander J.Through her acclaimed novel, Nadie me vera llorar, Cristina Rivera Garza, prolific Mexican author, and feminist literary icon, explores the conflicted history of vanilla as it is intimately intertwined with the history of Mexico and its people. This thesis offers a deep dive into the history of vanilla, from a prized and sacred crop of the indigenous Totonac people to the vessel of brutal oppression of said people by the European colonizers of the country. Using the New Historicism theory as a critical lens, the author of this thesis attempts to fill the gap of the widely misunderstood and often overlooked struggle for human rights throughout the history of Mexico, as illustrated by instances in the novel. The thesis will carefully explore the contextual history and human rights movement of the Porfirian era and how these are juxtaposed with Rivera Garza’s own view and beliefs regarding the movement – to shed light on the stories of the forgotten. ItemLa búsqueda de la redención individual como utopía en la narrativa de Gabriel García Márquez.(2010-06-23T12:28:22Z) Johnson, Amanda (Amanda Luisa); García-Corales, Guillermo.; Spanish.; Baylor University. Dept. of Modern Foreign Languages.En la literatura latinoamericana existe un gran énfasis en lo social con respecto a la búsqueda utópica. Mientras la sociedad puede representar un vehículo o un obstáculo en la búsqueda utópica, a veces ésta resulta ser más individual que colectiva. En las novelas de Gabriel García Márquez analizadas en esta tesis, El coronel no tiene quien le escriba (1961) y Memoria de mis putas tristes (2004), se observa una búsqueda solitaria de la redención que en esta investigación consideramos como una forma de impulso utópico. La condenación y la redención, entonces, se refieren a la habilidad del individuo de desarrollar la búsqueda utópica inherente a la existencia humana. En esta búsqueda se pone en juego el concepto propuesto por Albert Camus de la insatisfacción con estabilidad y la realización del yo como el único vehículo para la salvación, la cual también se conecta con el concepto camusiano de utopía mesurada.