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ItemAlien citizens : discerning the now and the not yet in the thought of Richard John Neuhaus.(2011-01-05T19:44:35Z) Reynolds, Matthew (Matt L.); McDaniel, Charles A.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.Richard John Neuhaus (1936-2009) was a prominent author, editor and cleric whose reflections on the relationship between Christian faith and American democracy were highly influential. This paper describes his efforts, over more than four decades as a public intellectual, to correctly prioritize his patriotic attachment to the American experiment and his ultimate loyalty to Christ and the Church. Neuhaus discerned perennial and irresolvable tensions between what he termed the "Now" and the "Not Yet" of the Christian experience, ideas that are roughly analogous to Augustine's concepts of the City of Man and the City of God. The paper demonstrates how Neuhaus exhorted American Christians to engagement in the political arena, taught how American democracy depends upon acknowledgment of Christ's lordship, and warned against the desire to build a perfectly Christianized society on earth. ItemAll truth is God's truth: the life and ideas of Frank E. Gaebelein.(2008-10-01T15:54:50Z) Beck, Albert R.; Hankins, Barry, 1956-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.Frank Gaebelein (1899-1983) was a key figure in the twentieth-century evangelical movement. His greatest impact was felt in the area of Christian education, but he was active in many other issues of concern to evangelicals, particularly matters of social justice and the arts. “Truth” was the animating concept behind Gaebelein’s work; his goal was to attempt to connect whatever subject he addressed with a biblical concept of the truth. Gaebelein’s life paralleled and helped define the transition of fundamentalism to evangelicalism. The son of a noted fundamentalist, his early years centered around his work at The Stony Brook School, an evangelical boarding school on Long Island, New York. It was here that Gaebelein developed his ideas on the philosophy of Christian education. “The integration of faith and learning” under the pattern of God’s overarching truth was the defining characteristic of his writing and practice in education. In his later years, Gaebelein devoted attention to matters of social justice and the arts. He was a theological conservative, but Gaebelein also believed that evangelical orthodoxy led him to take more moderate stances on social and cultural issues. He was a supporter of racial integration and an advocate for simple living, and he insisted that evangelicals had to engage the arts if they were to have lasting social impact. Gaebelein believed that all truth was God’s truth, and it was the duty of the Christian to relate every personal and corporate action to truth rooted in God. This commitment to truth proved to be a dynamic factor, allowing for an expansive application of Christian interest and ministry to all walks of life. At the same time, traditional evangelical notions of truth, rooted in a Common Sense Realist philosophy stemming from the Enlightenment, often lacked critical self awareness that limited the application and understanding of truth in an age that would soon came to deny the very existence of truth. ItemAmerican public religion in the religion clause jurisprudences of Felix Frankfurter and Antonin Scalia.(2012-08-08) Meadors, David C.; Hankins, Barry, 1956-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.The First Amendment religion clause jurisprudences of two United States Supreme Court justices--Felix Frankfurter and Antonin Scalia--find different forms of American public religion constitutional. Frankfurter's jurisprudence applied the Free Exercise Clause weakly, but the Establishment Clause strictly, as exemplified in the cases Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 310 U.S. 586 (1940) and McCollum v. Board of Education, 333 U.S. 203 (1948). Scalia, on the other hand, has interpreted both clauses with deference to government action in most cases, and this is evident in Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990) and McCreary County v. ACLU, 545 U.S. 844 (2005). The originalist interpretive methodology applied by both judges to the religion clauses relies for authority upon leaders from America's founding era such as Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, especially in Establishment Clause cases. Yet, Frankfurter and Scalia do not cite the same founders as authority, and they do not interpret the Establishment Clause in the same manner since Frankfurter has applied it strictly whereas Scalia has applied it weakly. In addition, Scalia has defended his originalist interpretive methodology of textualism in extrajudicial sources whereas Frankfurter's rationale for the originalism he applies to the religion clauses appears in his official opinions. Moreover, Frankfurter's Free Exercise Clause opinions also defer to government action because of his arguments in favor of judicial restraint, and both judges agree that religious liberty is best protected when first cherished and protected by citizens in the democratic process before resort to judicial review. The American public religion deemed constitutional in Frankfurter's religion clause opinions is also more secular in nature in that it does not include belief in God, but elements similar to religious faith such as the secular need for a day of rest, veneration of the American flag, and an appeal to the need for unifying beliefs in society, or what Frankfurter called "cohesive sentiment." Frankfurter reasoned, however, that more specifically religious education programs in public schools were unconstitutional because they would likely create social conflict. Scalia, to the contrary, has found more specifically theistic public religious expressions such as graduation prayers and displays of the Ten Commandments constitutional. This is not only because Scalia finds these expressions of American public religion consistent with and American tradition allowing preference for monotheistic faiths in public acknowledgments of deity, but also because he argues that relatively generic prayers at graduation ceremonies will enhance religious toleration and civility. ItemAn analysis of church social service and partnership following Hurricane Katrina.(2009-04-01T16:39:50Z) Napoli, Amanda Diane.; Marsh, Christopher, 1969-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.Historically, churches have been service providers willing to partner with religious, secular, business and government agencies for social services. Theoretical evidence points to how this relationship may look based upon studies of congregations and their partners in the delivery of social services, however, there is little known about service efforts churches engage in for disaster relief and the partnerships they forge for such efforts, particularly their relations with the government for disaster relief. This dissertation utilizes qualitative collective case study to obtain a broader understanding of the church service efforts and partnerships demonstrated following Hurricane Katrina. Churches played an instrumental role as a part of the wide safety net of service providers. This investigation analyzes churches in Baton Rouge, Louisiana of differing size, race, theology, and organizational structure that offered emergency aid following Hurricane Katrina to reveal (a) how they participated in service efforts and the meaning they applied to such efforts, (b) the partnerships they forged for relief services, (c) and how they partnered with the government for relief efforts. ItemAppeal to conscience clauses in the face of divergent practices among Catholic hospitals.(2011-12-19) Hapenney, Sandra S.; Beckwith, Francis.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.Conscience clauses are laws enacted by federal and state governments to protect health care providers from participating in those medical practices they consider morally objectionable. This study examines the practices of Catholic hospitals and their adherence to the Ethical and Religious Directives (ERD) for Catholic Health Care Services issued by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. If divergence of practice exists among Catholic hospitals, such diversity may pose judicial and political problems for providing protection under the conscience clauses. Catholic hospitals in seven states—California, Illinois, Indiana, New Jersey, New York, Texas and Washington—were studied to determine if diversity of practice existed in the provision of direct female sterilizations. Inpatient discharge data was requested for three years (2007-2009) from the 1,734 hospitals, secular and Catholic, within the states. Of these hospitals, 239 Catholic hospitals were identified of which 176 provided obstetric services. The records of these 176 hospitals were searched for those containing the diagnostic code from the ICD-9-CM coding system for sterilization for contraceptive management. Eighty-five or 48% of these hospitals provided a total of 20,073 direct sterilizations in violation of the ERD. An analysis of Catholic hospital systems owning hospitals within the seven state study area illustrated that 69.0% of the hospitals were members of 26 various Catholic hospital systems. Ten systems operating in the seven states also have hospitals outside the study area. Within these 10 systems, 64.2% of the hospitals in the study area performed direct sterilizations. An analysis of the Catholic dioceses in the study area revealed that 72.1% of the dioceses had hospitals which provided direct sterilizations. Thus, diversity of practice resulting from varied interpretations and applications of the ERD exists among hospitals, and within hospital systems and dioceses. An analysis of the conscience clauses illustrates that Catholic hospitals are in jeopardy of defending themselves against judicial challenges and could strip themselves of the ability to mount a political front to aid in defending the conscience clauses. ItemBaptist environmentalisms : a comparison of American Baptist and Southern Baptist attitudes, actions and approaches toward environmental issues.(2013-09-16) Weaver, Aaron Douglas.; McDaniel, Charles A.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.This dissertation articulates how and why Southern Baptists and American Baptists have addressed environmental issues during the critical second and third waves of environmental history. With the birth of the modern environmental movement as a logical starting point, Southern Baptist and American Baptist attitudes and actions concerning key environmental questions in American political and environmental history are examined. These include: population explosion (1960s), energy crises (1970s), environmental backlash (1980s) and international ecological concerns (1990s to present). This dissertation argues that Southern Baptists and American Baptists, while enjoying some similarities along the way and despite their shared Baptist heritage, have adopted and promoted very different environmentalisms. The findings from this comparative study reveal that these dissimilar environmentalisms are due to four factors relating to ethics, political engagement approaches, the regulatory role of government and attitudes toward advancements in science and technology. First, Southern Baptists and American Baptists have embraced disparate environmental ethics. Second, Southern Baptists and American Baptists have taken distinct political engagement approaches due to differing theological commitments. Third, Southern Baptists and American Baptists have adopted different attitudes about the appropriate regulatory role of government regarding environmental issues. Fourth and finally, Southern Baptists and American Baptists have held contrasting perspectives on prevailing scientific viewpoints and advancements in technology. These four factors offer answers to how and why these two related historic Protestant denominations have taken such divergent paths with regard to care of the environment or God’s creation. Nearly forty years after the first-ever Earth Day on April, 22, 1970, Southern Baptists and American Baptists had come to embrace radically different environmentalisms. American Baptists preached and practiced an environmentalism that sought strict environmental regulations and was defined by an eco-justice ethic emphasizing the interconnectedness of humans with their environment. Meanwhile, Southern Baptists were preaching and practicing a distinctly different environmentalism. Southern Baptists abandoned the ethic of previous decades and replaced it with a decidedly more conservative ethic that continued to utilize the language of stewardship but was increasingly anthropocentric and strikingly development-focused. Also, an anti-regulation philosophy and skepticism of prevailing scientific viewpoints characterized their environmentalism. ItemCatholic liberation theology and Islamic Jihadism : a comparative analysis.(2010-10-08T16:29:25Z) Toll, Benjamin.; Payne, Daniel P.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.This thesis compares Catholic liberation theology which gained notoriety in the late 1960s and early 1970s as popularized by the works of Gustavo Gutierrez with modern Islamic Jihadism, which was ideologically driven by Sayyid Qutb in the 1950s and 1960s. Supporters of Catholic liberation theology and Islamic Jihadism believe they are a remnant group attempting to call a wayward people back to true religion and against rampant Western colonialism and capitalism. This will lead to the building of the Kingdom of God here on Earth. The thesis ends with a suggestion that the American response to Catholic liberation theology and Islamic Jihadism shares similar characteristics which makes any lasting compromise unlikely outside of a shared understanding that no one can know all of God's plans in the world. ItemChristian covenant and liberal freedom : a new approach to the modern marriage crisis.(2012-08-08) Holton, Kevin T.; Beckwith, Francis.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.Today’s society is burdened by an overwhelming abundance of government regulations in what is commonly regarded as the private realm, and sizeable numbers of people of all political ideologies are scrambling to end those regulations they find offensive. Interestingly, those same would-be reformers who balk most loudly at some regulations are wholeheartedly committed to maintaining or adding to existing regulations when it suits their political agendas, indicating that people will willingly abandon their political principles when they conflict with their efforts to attain political power. To my knowledge, no one has given serious consideration to the elimination altogether of government regulation, especially in marriage law, as a means of advancing toward a more Christian standard of living. Herein, I demonstrate that the modern Christian obsession with maintaining legal exclusivity for heterosexual marriage is misguided while the secular liberal appeal for legalization of same-sex (or gender-neutral) marriage is equally ill-conceived. Instead, a libertarian approach to the formation of families is ideal for both the Christian and the secular liberal, for it allows the Church to tighten its hold on the definition of marriage and frees the individual to pursue whatever life choices she or she wishes to make. Prevention of the legal disestablishment of marriage ultimately feeds religious complacency, weakens the marriage bond, and distracts from the pursuit of holiness; it also enslaves the free individual to the capricious whims of the secular state. ItemClare of Assisi : shaping a new paradigm of sainthood.(2010-02-02T20:07:11Z) Sutherland, Gabrielle E.; Hamilton, J. S., 1955-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.Separating the historical figure of Saint Clare from the icon handed down from history is a significant part of this study. Part of the complexity of the life of Clare of Assisi rested in the negotiation of her very public spiritual life during a time of ecclesiastical reform and her formative association with the Franciscan movement. Another part of that construct can be attributed to her role in society as a noblewoman in the burgeoning Italian commune with all that involved. Finding the woman who was Clare within the iconic image passed down poses a challenge. The process of becoming a saint is a living dialogue between the saint-the-person and sainthood-the-symbol. Semiotic theory offers a method for studying this process of Clare-the-saint serving as image, becoming a symbol, and eventually a sign for her time—especially for women—as she grappled with questions of identity, redefined relationships, and applied her theories towards a model for Franciscan living. The legendae surrounding Clare (even those produced during her lifetime) were a significant element of this process, as the writers consciously drew upon traditional and contemporary themes from literature and iconic imagery. Clare employed similar themes in her own writings, and the Church did the same upon her death, using the occasion to re-formulate and more firmly cement canonization procedures. ItemCoexistent inconsistency: the Supreme Court, Jehovah's Witnesses, and the expansion of religious liberties.(2007-12-04T19:53:53Z) Lynn, Nathan R.; McDaniel, Charles A.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.During the course of the Twentieth Century, the Jehovah’s Witnesses went before the United States Supreme Court over twenty times in an effort to further their religious liberties. These cases involved the often tumultuous relationship between their theology and the First Amendment’s Free Exercise Clause. Occasionally the Witnesses proved inconsistent with their faith; however, the Supreme Court proved just as inconsistent in their rulings and reasoning of these cases. These inconsistencies between the two parties created a symbiotic benefit for not only the Witnesses, but all Americans, as new religious freedoms were granted. While persecution and unpopularity plagued the Witnesses, this only made them more resilient and determined to pursue legal methods and ensure their liberties would be established and well-protected. ItemCompeting schemas within the American liberal democracy : an interdisciplinary analysis of differing perceptions of church and state.(2013-09-16) Holzer, Shannon.; Beckwith, Francis.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.The current understanding of liberal democracy in many academic circles includes a set of restraints on the types of justification that are accepted for the creation of coercive legislation. There is much debate over which sources should be accepted to publically justify laws touching on education and morality. Many believe that religious beliefs are outside of public reason, and they are, thus, inadequate to justify the formation of coercive laws. The reason for this is that many people perceive religious reasoning as irrational, divisive, and dangerous. Because of this perception, religion has by and large been relegated to the private sphere. The perception of religious reasoning as irrational, divisive, and dangerous has also become firmly engrained in the legal community. Because of this, state and federal courts tend to treat legislation that is organically connected to religion as a violation of the Establishment Clause. This dissertation argues that this perception of religion is incomplete. Those who perceive religion as irrational, dangerous, and divisive somehow do not recognize its reasonable, peaceful, and unifying aspects. Furthermore, the problems popularly attributed to religious reason are not unique to religion. Secular reasoning can also be irrational, dangerous, and divisive. Ultimately, religious reasoning may indeed have a place in the formation of coercive legislation that is tolerable to its detractors. The incorporation of religious reasoning does not entail an all-out theocracy as many might fear. Given that the fundamental principles of liberal democracy are often grounded on religious premises, to require restraint of religious reasoning would be to remove the foundation of liberal principles on which this country stands. Furthermore, it would violate a key tenet of liberal democracy that all should be treated free and equal by placing a burden on the religious citizen that is not shared by the non-religious citizen. ItemConceiving coexistence: an exposition on the divergent Western and Islamic conceptualizations of tolerance.(2006-07-29T18:22:55Z) Tyler, Aaron M.; Davis, Derek, 1949-; Brackney, William H.; Nederman, Cary J.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.This dissertation provides a brief analysis of select writings and practics of tolerance in Western and Islamic histories to show how an intercultural understanding of tolerance is well within the philosophical, theological, and practical parameters of both traditions. ItemDefying boundaries: the challenge of transnational religion to international relations.(2008-06-09T13:36:43Z) Kent, Jennifer M.; Marsh, Christopher, 1969-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.It is my intent to evaluate the ways in which the primary International Relations paradigms analyze, incorporate, or disregard religion, particularly its transnational manifestations. It is my contention that transnational religion is a potent actor in the international community, whose potential for disruption or for diplomacy within the international system has been systematically ignored or mis-interpreted by the predominant international relations paradigms. The developing field of constructivism, though primarily based in the other social sciences, offers an alternative and promising framework for the study of religion in international relations. I outline each school’s deficiencies in their approach to transnational religion and identify important areas of potential development towards a more comprehensive analysis of the significance of transnational religion to international relations. ItemThe dilemma of justice: how religion influences the political environment of post-1948 Israel and Palestine.(2006-05-27T19:49:02Z) Ross, Sasha A.; Ellis, Marc H.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.This thesis examines the historical context, ideological traditions, and structures of power that have animated relations between Israeli Jews and Arab Palestinians during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Cognizant of the “prisms of pain” that have come to symbolize both Jewish and Palestinian identities, this thesis assumes that identities are in constant flux and are often determined by that which they negotiate against. Its first section considers some historical forces, specific inter-group events, and internal political tensions that intensified the early Jewish and Arab national projects against the British and that later pitted each group against the other. The second section examines the values enshrined in the sacred texts of each monotheistic tradition and the extent to which such have influenced the political engagement between Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Israel and Palestine. It concludes that because religion can be used as a political tool of repression, a prophetic spirituality common to all three traditions may be necessary for any sustainable project of social transformation and political reconciliation. ItemDynamic civil religion and religious nationalism : the Roman Catholic Church in Poland and the Orthodox Church in Romania, 1990-2010.(2012-11-29) Tarţa, Mihai Iustin.; Payne, Daniel P.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.This dissertation addresses the association of national identity and religious tradition of the Polish Roman Catholic Church (PRCC) in Poland and the Romanian Orthodox Church (ROC) in Romania, and analyses the evolution and the contemporary significance of sacralized politics. This study relies on a historical comparative study of two most similar cases and it tracks the evolution and analyses the discourse of the PRCC and ROC, the state’s discourse, and the presence of religious symbols in state institutions. Using an interdisciplinary comparative method, this study is about the civil religious attitude of the two ecclesiastical institutions in relation to the nation-state and national identity in the post-communist period (1990-2012). It looks specifically at the relevance of religion in connection to nationalism, the official and unofficial discourse of the two ecclesiastical institutions, at politician’s discourse, and lay intellectuals’ discourse. The sacralization of politics concept best explains the gap between the high religiosity professed by Poles and Romanians and the low participation in religious life and pertains to the salience of civil religion in the detriment of "traditional" religion. Therefore, this dissertation asks what is the relation between religion and politics concerning the fusion of sacred ecclesiastical identity and national identity in Poland and Romania. The molding of religion and politics in the sociopolitical and historical context of the nation-state describes a dynamic phenomenon where the nation becomes sacred and the sacred becomes nationalized. It demonstrates that the molding of nationalism and religion materialized in civil religion, political religion and religious nationalism and it indicates a historical debate regarding the proper place of religion in public. In both countries, there was competition and shifts between banal civil religion and more assertive forms like political religion and religious nationalism. Poland and Romania first expressed their national identity by using a civil religious discourse with religious nationalist accents, than this discourse partially shifted towards political religion under the authoritarian Communist regimes and it reemerged as a banal civil religion after 1989. ItemE pluribus unum : the limits of religious pluralism in American liberal democracy.(2011-05-12T15:22:30Z) Chen, Samuel S., 1987-; Beckwith, Francis.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies."Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." Often inferred from the religion clauses of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution are the absolute right of religious liberty and the subsequent necessity of a religiously pluralistic society. Religious pluralism has become a norm of American society and, in many cases, a norming value—seen as a founding principle of the United States and a keystone of liberal democracy. In the ongoing dialogue regarding religion and its role in democracy, however, religious pluralism's assumed position in society is one deserving of scrutiny. As religion itself is considered within the intricate balance of republican government, so must all aspects of religion—including religious pluralism and its trusted fortress: religious liberty. Such assessment illuminates and demonstrates the extent and limits of religious liberty and, subsequently, religious pluralism in liberal democracy. ItemThe effects of American fundamentalism on educating towards a virtuous citizenry : the case of C. I. Scofield and Philadelphia Biblical University.(2010-06-23T12:16:50Z) Basie, John D.; Hankins, Barry, 1956-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.From the founding of Harvard in 1636 until the end of nineteenth century, the old-time college model of higher education was pervasive throughout the fledgling American republic. Christian morality was foundational to the curriculum as was the formation of virtuous citizens who would consistently contribute to the common good of American society through the pursuit of the culture-forming professions of medicine, law, and the ministry. Although evangelization and spiritual growth were viewed as important goals of the old-time college, they were not the primary educational aims. By contrast, Bible institutes placed such emphases above other educational aims. These institutions were founded by conservative evangelicals in large part as a defensive reaction to modernist-informed liberal Protestantism beginning at the end of the nineteenth century. C.I. Scofield was Philadelphia Biblical University’s primary founder and first president. His dispensational leanings were central to the institution’s educational aims from the founding of the institution in 1914 (then called Philadelphia School of the Bible) to the 1950s and through the present. There are two significant consequences of Scofield’s dispensationalism that are relevant to PBU. First, Scofield’s dispensationalist leanings were central to his educational philosophy and in the way the early PBU curriculum represented a break from the old-time college model of higher education. Instead of adopting the old-time college philosophy of forming virtuous citizens whose focus would hold together an earthly as well as a heavenly telos, Scofield intended to form citizens of heaven only. Second, Scofieldian dispensationalism at PBU was stronger in the 1950s than it is now. As the institution moved from that decade into the 1970s, 1990s, and finally to the present, its classic historic Scofieldian-dispensational identity has diminished while the characteristics that suggest it is increasingly committed to the common good and forming virtuous citizens of earth—not just citizens of heaven—have strengthened. ItemAn evaluation of the conceptual similarities and differences between the strategic logic of the religiously motivated suicide attacks of Tokkotai kamikaze and al-Qaeda shahid.(2013-09-16) Mizuta, Jonathan Juichi.; Mitchell, William A., 1940-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.What motivated members of al-Qaeda to hijack commercial airliners and crash them into the sides of buildings? Is it similar to what motivated Japanese fighter pilots to crash their jets into the sides of American aircraft carriers? If so, what can these two seemingly disparate phenomena tell us about the nature of the relationship between religion and violence? Finally, were the attacks of the two groups both responses to American actions abroad (which is often described as “American imperialism”)? While Americans no longer face the threat of attack from kamikaze pilots, the attacks of September 11, 2001 by members of al-Qaeda demonstrated that the threat of suicide attack by Islamic extremists, or shahid, is very real. Despite the efforts of the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the Department of Homeland Security, and the branches of the United States military as well as dozens of their sister agencies in other countries, the number of religiously motivated suicide attacks perpetrated against the United States has increased exponentially since the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, though the most devastating event remains the attacks on September 11, 2001. The only other time that the United States and its allies have faced suicide attacks of this volume and magnitude occurred in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Those attacks were carried out by the pilots of the Tokkotai, more commonly known as the kamikaze of the Empire of Japan. There are several significant similarities between the suicide attacks perpetrated against the U.S. by members of al-Qaeda and those perpetrated against the U.S. by the Tokkotai, most notably the utilization of religious rhetoric to justify suicide attacks. This dissertation will compare these two groups, investigating the histories of their foundational religions (Shinto and Islam) and their radical interpretations (State Shinto and Jihadism), their historical interactions with the West, and their utilization of suicide attacks in their fight against perceived oppression by the United States. ItemFaith seeking understanding: the relationship between noetic and pneumatic differentiation in Eric Voegelin's political philosophy.(2007-01-11) Russell, Jeremiah H.; Hankins, Barry, 1956-; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.This thesis is a study of the philosophy of Eric Voegelin with particular focus on the relationship between noetic differentiation (particularly Greek philosophy) and pneumatic differentiation (particularly Christianity). The thesis begins with an examination of the recovery of transcendence in politics through his noetic theory of consciousness and noetic theory of history. It then turns to consider Voegelin's reading of Christianity, which makes a nuanced distinction between the superior Christian differentiation and its subsequent derailed expression. The thesis proposes that, for a variety of reasons, Voegelin gave primacy to Greek philosophy over Christianity in order to restore political order through a "noetically-controlled Christianity." ItemFreedom in the thought and work of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.(2013-09-16) Emblem, Erik Steven.; Payne, Daniel P.; Church and State.; Baylor University. Institute of Church-State Studies.The purpose of this dissertation is to discover Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s interpretation of freedom. King’s life was dedicated to a pursuit of freedom for African Americans, the poor, and unfree people around the world. This dissertation takes a comprehensive approach to answering the question: What did King envision when he spoke of freedom? To answer that research question I address King’s interpretation of freedom; the significance of freedom to him; and how he hoped to apply freedom in the sociopolitical world? The answers to these questions are sought through the interpretation, and analysis of King’s beliefs as presented in his writings. This dissertation asserts that King’s interpretation of freedom is that people possess the innate ability to decide who they are and how they will be and that each person has the right to actualize her/his will in the phenomenal world. Important to his idea of freedom are some of the components included in the Human Development and Capabilities Approach—especially the conviction that people have the innate right to both substantive and instrumental freedoms. This dissertation argues that King’s idea of freedom was rooted in his experience as an American, an African American and Black Christian; his commitment to the ideas of Christian personalism; his belief that a good state will both protect and provide freedom; and that the moral law of God is on the side of freedom. Questions for further consideration arise out of this dissertation. Is King’s dream too utopian? Is he attempting to overcome the harsh reality that one’s existence is a struggle against the forces that are beyond human capability (e.g., Is he in a way denying death?). Another question that arises from this dissertation addresses the matter of a transcendent moral code. If King’s interpretation of freedom is rooted in God’s law, who is the human arbiter of God’s law? With the growth of secularism in the United States and closeting of religious dialogue in the public square, is it possible to realize King’s dream? These are important questions; however, they do not diminish from King’s interpretation of freedom and the value he placed on realizing freedom in the world.