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ItemAll for one and one for all: A mechanism through which broad-based employee stock ownership and employee-perceived involvement practice create a productive workforce(Wiley Online Library, 2019-02-27) Kim, Andrea; Han, KyongjiDrawing on social identity theory, this research frames a multimediational model that delineates how broad-based employee stock ownership (BESO) and employee-perceived involvement practice in tandem yield a productive workforce at the organization level. In our theoretical model, we propose that social cohesion and voluntary turnover are collective attitudinal and behavioral outcomes resulting from the shared perception of we-ness that employees experience through both participatory practices. Our path analysis of a multisource, time-lagged dataset from 176 large U.S. companies revealed the sequential mediating roles of social cohesion and voluntary turnover between these organizational practices and labor productivity. Our theoretical claims and empirical evidence will contribute to a systematic understanding of how and why BESO and employee involvement leverage greater organizational productivity from employees. ItemAll you need is … resources: The effects of justice and support on burnout and turnover(SAGE Journals, 2013-02-04) Campbell, Nathanael S.; Perry, Sara J.; Maertz, Carl P. Jr; Allen, David G.; Griffeth, Rodger W.We propose and test a comprehensive model of burnout, as influenced by justice and support, and as it impacts the turnover process. Deriving our conceptual model from conservation of resources theory, augmented by several domain-specific theories, we investigate three forms of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) and two sources of support (from organizations and supervisors) as they influence the development of three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished accomplishment) and subsequent forms of attitudinal withdrawal (organizational commitment and turnover intentions) and behavioral withdrawal (turnover). In a study of 343 social workers, our theoretical path model was well-supported, providing increased understanding of the distinct roles of each form of justice and support in the development of burnout and the subsequent turnover process. Theoretical contributions and implications in the areas of justice, burnout, and turnover are discussed. ItemThe angry implications of work-to-family conflict: Examining effects of leadership on an emotion-based model of deviance(Elsevier, 2018-10) Morgan, Whitney B.; Perry, Sara J.; Wang, YingchunDrawing upon Affective Events Theory (AET), we propose a model of work interfering with family (WIF, a form of work-family conflict), work-to-family resentment, and organizational deviance with consideration of the leader's use of transformational and transactional leadership styles as a contextual moderator of an employee's emotional and behavioral responses. Owner and employee data were collected from 221 employees at 55 small businesses in a large southern U.S. metropolitan area. Multi-level modeling results revealed that work-family resentment fully mediated the relation between WIF and deviance, but this mediated relationship was independent of leadership style. Unexpectedly, we found a direct effect of the three-way interaction on deviance, such that the direct WIF-deviance linkage was strongest when leaders reported being low in transformational leadership and high in transactional leadership. These results suggest that employees who work for leaders who exhibit higher levels of transactional leadership in combination with lower levels of transformational leadership may not necessarily experience higher levels of work-to-family resentment (contrary to our expectations), but may be more likely to retaliate by committing acts of deviance directed toward their organization. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the empirical linkage between WIF and deviance through work-to-family resentment, and the ways leaders might mitigate detrimental effects. ItemAntecedents and consequences of satisfaction with work–family balance: A moderating role of perceived insider status(Wiley Online Library, 2017-06-22) Choi, Jaepil; Kim, Andrea; Han, Kyongji; Ryu, Seongmin; Park, Jong G.; Kwon, BoraThis study developed a moderated mediation model to investigate how family-supportive paid leave and supervision affect employees' satisfaction with work–family balance and in turn their affective organizational commitment and supervisor-directed organizational citizenship behavior depending on their perceived insider status in the organization. Our analysis of data collected from 118 employee–supervisor dyads in Korean organizations revealed that satisfaction with work–family balance mediated the linkages from family-supportive supervision to affective organizational commitment and supervisor-directed organizational citizenship behavior, and the linkage from family-supportive paid leave to affective organizational commitment. Results further showed that the entire mediational process for family-supportive supervision was more pronounced for those who perceived themselves to be an insider of their organizations, while the same pattern was not found for the meditational process related to family-supportive paid leave. Our findings provide theoretical implications for work–family balance research and offer practical suggestions to make employees satisfied with work–family balance. ItemAvoiding the issue: Disengagement coping style and the personality–CWB link(Taylor & Francis Online, 2016-03-08) Shoss, Mindy K.; Hunter, Emily M.; Penney, Lisa M.The current study positions coping as a motivational framework to understand why Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Agreeableness are related to the performance of organization- and person-directed counterproductive work behavior (CWB) when employees experience constraints at work. In particular, we hypothesized a moderated meditational model wherein individuals low in Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability engage in CWB because these traits contribute to a preferred style of coping with stressors (disengagement coping style) that is particularly likely to be triggered when one’s coping preferences are consistent with the coping demands of the situation. Our hypotheses were supported and point to the joint importance of personality-based coping predispositions and situational demands in determining the use of CWB as a coping strategy. ItemBenefits of transformational behaviors for leaders: A daily investigation of leader behaviors and need fulfillment(National Library of Medicine, 2016-02) Lanaj, Klodiana; Johnson, Russell E.; Lee, Stephanie M.Although a large body of work has examined the benefits of transformational leadership, this work has predominantly focused on recipients of such behaviors. Recent research and theory, however, suggest that there are also benefits for those performing behaviors reflective of transformational leadership. Across 2 experience-sampling studies, we investigate the effects of such behaviors on actors' daily affective states. Drawing from affective events theory and self-determination theory we hypothesize and find that engaging in behaviors reflective of transformational leadership is associated with improvement in actors' daily affect, more so than engaging in behaviors reflective of transactional, consideration, initiating structure, and participative leadership. Behaviors reflective of transformational leadership improved actors' affect in part by fulfilling their daily needs. Furthermore, extraversion and neuroticism moderated these effects such that extraverts benefitted less whereas neurotics benefitted more from these behaviors in terms of affective changes. We consider the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and offer directions for future research. ItemBeyond the Bottom Line: Don’t Forget to Consider the Role of the Family(SAGE Journals, 2021-07-18) Quade, Matthew J.; Wan, Maggie; Carlson, Dawn S.; Kacmar, K. Michele; Greenbaum, Rebecca L.Our work investigates the influence of supervisor bottom-line mentality (SBLM) (i.e., a one-dimensional focus on bottom-line outcomes to the exclusion of other organizational priorities) on employees’ organizational commitment via the work-family interface as well as the crossover effects of SBLM on the organizational commitment of the employees’ spouse. More specifically, we examined how SBLM contributes to work-family conflict (WFC) and impacts the experienced commitment of the dyad along three paths. We conducted two studies across three samples (Study 1, Sample A: 186 employees; Study 1, Sample B: 258 employees; Study 2: 399 employee-spouse dyads) to demonstrate the unique role of SBLM in this context and find support for the hypothesized relationships. First, the resource drain of SBLM had a spillover effect through WFC to decrease the employee’s commitment at work. Second, it crossed over to the spouse to reduce their own organizational commitment due to the employee being a source of family undermining, which subsequently influenced the spouse’s family-work conflict (FWC). Third, SBLM impacted the spouse such that it crossed back to contribute to decreased organizational commitment for the employee. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed as well as directions for future research. ItemBoundary Conditions of Ethical Leadership: Exploring Supervisor-Induced and Job Hindrance Stress as Potential Inhibitors(Springer, 2017-12-28) Quade, Matthew M.; Perry, Sara J.; Hunter, Emily M.It is widely accepted that ethical leadership is beneficial for the organization, the leader, and followers. Yet, little has been said about potential limitations of ethical leadership, particularly boundary conditions involving the same person perceived to display ethical leadership. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we argue that supervisor-induced hindrance stress and job hindrance stress are factors linked to the supervisor and work environment that may limit the positive impact of ethical leadership on employee deviance and turnover intentions. Specifically, we expect that high levels of hindrance stress drain resources, specifically perceptions of social support, by inhibiting the completion of work, particularly in combination with the high expectations of ethical leaders. We test our model across two time-lagged field studies (N = 310 and N = 299). Our results demonstrate that supervisor-induced hindrance stress mitigates some of the beneficial impact of ethical leadership and that job hindrance stress further strains these relationships. Overall, our results suggest that both forms of hindrance stress jointly impact the effectiveness of ethical leadership on important outcomes, and do so partly because of their influence on perceived social support. We discuss theoretical contributions to the ethical leadership and stress bodies of literature, as well as practical implications for managers and organizations wishing to develop ethical leaders. ItemChanging the narrative on harassment and discrimination training: Building an organizational culture with healthy professional boundaries(Cambridge University Press, 2020-07-28) Perry, Sara J. ItemClarifying the construct of human resource systems: Relating human resource management to employee performance(Elsevier, 2012-06) Jiang, Kaifeng; Lepak, David P.; Han, Kyongji; Hong, Ying; Kim, Andrea; Winkler, Anne-LaureStrategic human resource management researchers have strongly advocated a system perspective and provided considerable evidence that certain systems of human resource practices have a significant impact on individual and organizational performance. Yet, challenges of understanding the construct of human resource systems still remain in the literature. Specifically, few efforts have been made to explicate the internal fit in human resource systems referring to how the practices in human resource systems work together. For the purpose of clarifying human resource systems construct, we review the components of human resource systems and delineate how the parts of human resource systems work together to influence employee performance. Theoretical and empirical implications for future research are also discussed. ItemConstruct Validation Standards and the Team Descriptive Index: Reply to Dowling(Academy of Management, 2020-12-31) Lee, Stephanie M.; Koopman, Joel; Hollenbeck, John R.; Wang, Linda C.; Lanaj, KlodianaFor the last 60 years, scale development efforts in Psychology and Management have closely followed psychometric theory and procedures outlined by Cronbach and Meehl (1955). While many have improved and positively added to psychometric practices (e.g., Bentler, 1990; Campbell & Fiske, 1959; Jöreskog, 1969; Nunnally, 1978; Reckase, 2009; Schwab, 1980), there have been attempts to develop alternative methods. One such approach is the C-OAR-SE procedure (Rossiter, 2002), which was recently used to evaluate the Team Descriptive Index (TDI; Lee et al., 2015) in “Commentary on the Team Descriptive Index” (Dowling, in press). In this response to the commentary, we offer a peer-review of the C-OAR-SE procedure and arguments for why we stand by the psychometric theory underlying the development of the TDI. It is our hope that our response will have value to future scholars who have utilized traditional psychometric methods to construct validate measures and face critiques on their methodology as we witnessed in “Commentary on the Team Descriptive Index.” ItemA Cross Level Investigation on the Linkage Between Job Satisfaction and Voluntary Workplace Green Behavior(Springer Nature, 2018-01-12) Kim, Andrea; Kim, Youngsang; Han, KyongjiBuilding on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and on social role theory, this research investigates the linkages among prior job satisfaction, voluntary workplace green behavior (VWGB), and subsequent job satisfaction as dependent on work group gender composition. With a multi-source, multi-time dataset, our random coefficient modeling demonstrated that job satisfaction positively predicts VWGB and that this pattern is more salient in work groups with more females. In addition, while VWGB does not yield job satisfaction in a subsequent time period, this positive linkage occurs in work groups with fewer females. This research offers theoretical implications for understanding the internal states and personal benefits of voluntary green performers as well as for the role of work group gender diversity on the linkages between prior job satisfaction and VWGB and between VWGB and subsequent job satisfaction. Our findings also illuminate the practical benefits of environmentally sustainable organizations. ItemDepartment of Defense energy policy and research: A framework to support strategy(Elsevier, 2016-05) Strakos, Joshua K.; Quintanilla, Jose A.; Huscroft, Joseph R.The Department of Defense (DOD) is the major consumer of energy within the Federal government, and it has been directed to implement cost cutting measures related to energy dependence through numerous Executive Orders and Congressional legislation. As a result, the DOD released an Energy Strategy which outlines ways to reduce energy requirements in order to meet both Presidential and Congressional mandates for energy security. With this research, we provide a historical review (1973–2014) of energy policy, legislation, and research. Additionally we identify gaps between strategy and research. The results show that DOD energy research lacks a unifying structure and guiding framework. We propose a knowledge management framework to unify and guide research efforts in direct support of the DOD Energy Strategy. ItemDeveloping Engineering Leaders: An Organized Innovation Approach to Engineering Education(Taylor & Francis Online, 2017-05-26) Perry, Sara J.; Hunter, Emily M.; Currall, Steven C.; Frauenhein, EdIn addition to providing technical expertise in their respective fields, engineers are increasingly assuming leadership roles in academia, industry, government, and even non-profit organizations. We draw from lessons learned in our decade-long study of the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center program to provide both a theoretical framework, the Organized Innovation Model for Education, and tangible recommendations to educators, engineering managers, and anyone else interested in developing highly skilled engineers who are also excellent leaders. The model addresses a long-lamented need for systematic ways to integrate leadership development into technical curriculum and skill-building programs. ItemDifferential impact of short-term and long-term group incentives(Emerald Publishing, 2018-04-03) Han, Kyongji; Kim, AndreaPurpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the additive and differential effects of short-term-oriented group incentives (STOGIs) and long-term-oriented group incentives (LTOGIs) on psychological ownership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach This study analyzed data from 17,255 US employees in the 2005 data set of the National Bureau of Economic Research Shared Capitalism Research. Findings Both additive indices of group incentives have direct positive relationships with psychological ownership and organizational commitment, as well as indirect positive relationships with organizational commitment through psychological ownership. STOGIs have a stronger relationship with organizational commitment and LTOGIs have a stronger relationship with psychological ownership. Originality/value The value of this research lies in exploring the differential effects of short-and long-term group incentives, which provides new insight into the theory of group incentives and practical implications for their effective utilization. ItemDisability at Work: A Look Back and Forward(Springer Nature, 2017-11-06) Schur, Lisa; Han, Kyongji; Kim, Andrea; Ameri, Mason; Blanck, Peter; Kruse, DouglasPurpose This article presents new evidence on employment barriers and workplace disparities facing employees with disabilities, linking the disparities to employee attitudes. Methods Analyses use the 2006 General Social Survey to connect disability to workplace disparities and attitudes in a structural equation model. Results Compared to employees without disabilities, those with disabilities report: lower pay levels, job security, and flexibility; more negative treatment by management; and, lower job satisfaction but similar organizational commitment and turnover intention. The lower satisfaction is mediated by lower job security, less job flexibility, and more negative views of management and co-worker relations. Conclusion Prior research and the present findings show that people with disabilities experience employment disparities that limit their income, security, and overall quality of work life. Technology plays an increasingly important role in decreasing employment disparities. However, there also should be increased targeted efforts by government, employers, insurers, occupational rehabilitation providers, and disability groups to address workplace barriers faced by employees with disabilities, and by those with disabilities seeking to return to work. ItemDisparate Safety Enforcement: Curvilinear Effects, Mechnisms, and Boundary Conditions of Supervisor-rated Leader-Member Exchange(SAGE Journals, 2021-12-23) Perry, Sara J.; Lorinkova, Natalia M.; Madanoglu, MelihAcross three studies, we integrate relational leadership theory with affective events theory to examine the leader perspective in dyadic relationships and how this perspective influences differential leader behaviors directed toward each subordinate in terms of safety enforcement. First, in two field studies with different high-risk contexts, we delineate a curvilinear relationship between supervisor-rated leader–member exchange (SLMX) and safety enforcement. In our second field study we also examine the moderating role of leaders’ safety commitment as well as the linkage between safety enforcement and accidents. Finally, in a fully randomized experiment, we explore three relational dynamics as mechanisms of the effect of SLMX on safety enforcement—trust, consideration, and liking. Through these efforts, we offer rare direct tests of the theoretical assertion that leader–member exchange includes differential treatment based on affective relationship cues within a leader-and-subordinate relationship. Our two field studies reveal that leaders are likely to monitor safety most closely for low- and high-SLMX subordinates, but mid-SLMX subordinates are most likely to be overlooked. This U-shaped relationship emerges only for less committed leaders, and safety enforcement translates these effects to actual accidents. Our experimental study reveals a similar U shape between liking and enforcement, but a positive relationship emerges between distrust and enforcement, as well as between consideration on enforcement. These results shed insight into theoretical and practical implications for how leaders can foster a safer workplace for all. ItemThe downside of goal-focused leadership: The role of personality in subordinate exhaustion(APA PsycNet, 2010) Perry, Sara J.; Witt, L. A.; Penney, Lisa M.; Atwater, LeanneExhaustion has a significant impact on employees and organizations, and leader behavior may affect it. We applied conservation of resources theory to test propositions regarding the joint effects of goal-focused leadership (GFL) and personality on employee exhaustion. We proposed that the relationship between GFL and exhaustion depends on employees' standing on both conscientiousness and emotional stability. Specifically, we expected that high-conscientiousness subordinates experience greater compatibility with a goal-focused leader because of their predisposition to direct resources toward achievement and goal setting, resulting in lower exhaustion under such a leader than among low-conscientiousness employees. Furthermore, high emotional stability may compensate for GFL incompatibility among low-conscientiousness employees by providing additional resources to manage GFL. In contrast, employees low on both traits likely experience greater exhaustion under a goal-focused leader compared with other employees. Results revealed a 3-way interaction in 2 independent samples and were generally supportive of our predictions. GFL was associated with heightened exhaustion among individuals in the low-emotional-stability, low-conscientiousness group but not among workers having any other trait combination. ItemDynamic leadership emergence: Differential impact of members' and peers' contributions in the idea generation and idea enactment phases of innovation project teams(National Library of Medicine, 2019-03) Lee, Stephanie M.; Farh, Crystal I. C.Integrating functional leadership theory with models of the team creativity and innovation, we present a dynamic model of leadership emergence where leadership emergence is shaped by (a) the type of contributions members express (constructive contributions proposing new ideas, or supportive contributions affirming ideas with merit), (b) when those contributions are expressed (i.e., in the idea generation or idea enactment phase), and (c) the extent fellow teammates themselves are contributing in constructive or supportive ways in those phases. We tested our theoretical model in two studies involving simulated teams engaged in an innovation design challenge. In both studies, we found that constructive contributions were more strongly related to leadership emergence in the idea generation phase than in the idea enactment phase. Moreover, the impact of constructive contributions on leadership emergence in the idea generation phase was stronger when there was a "void"-that is, fellow teammates' constructive contributions were low. Surprisingly, in both studies, we found consistent evidence that supportive contributions also enhanced leadership emergence in the idea generation phase, whereas the findings on supportive contributions and leadership emergence in the idea enactment phase were mixed. Overall, our model highlights the importance of integrating dynamic and contextualized aspects of teams into theories of leadership emergence and also sheds new light on the processes underlying emergent forms of leadership in the early phases of the innovation cycle. ItemThe Effects of Nursing Satisfaction and Turnover Cognitions on Patient Attitudes and Outcomes: A Three‐Level Multisource Study(John Wiley and Sons, 2018-12) Perry, Sara J.; Richter, Jason P.; Beauvais, BradObjective: To explore antecedents and outcomes of nurse self‐reported job satisfaction and dissatisfaction‐based turnover cognitions, theorizing (using Self‐Determination Theory) that leaders can foster work conditions that help fulfill innate needs, thereby fostering satisfaction of nurses and patients, and reducing adverse events. Data Sources/Study Setting: Primary and secondary data were collected within a 4‐month period in 2015, from 2,596 nurses in 110 Army treatment facilities (hospitals and clinics) across 35 health care systems. Data Collection/Extraction: We collected individual nurse responses to the Practice Environment Scale‐Nursing Work Index, in addition to aggregated archival data from the same timeframe, including both facility‐level patient satisfaction records (the Army Provider Level Satisfaction Survey) and health care system‐level adverse events records (provided by the Army Programming, Analysis, and Evaluation office). Principal Findings: Five predictors of nurse satisfaction and turnover cognitions emerged—supportive leadership, staffing levels, nurse–physician teamwork, adoption of nursing care practice, and advancement opportunities. Aggregated nurse satisfaction was the most consistent predictor of both patient satisfaction and adverse events. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence of the importance of nurse attitudes in improving perceived and actual performance across facilities and health care systems; in addition to practical steps, managers can take to improve satisfaction and retention.