ItemMindset of Obligation: Conceptualization and Empirical Validation of a New Measure of Initiation and Perseverance.(International Association of Applied Psychology, 2022-07-27) Milam, A. C.; Rubino, C; Perry, S. J.; Toribio, R. A.; Johnson, L. U.We theoretically develop and empirically validate a measure of mindset of obligation, building on the concept of the form of commitment that receives the least attention from scholars – normative commitment. We define a mindset of obligation as the pervasive tendency to initiate new endeavors and persevere through existing roles and responsibilities out of a sense of obligation. We suggest that this mindset acts as a binding agent that affects strain and withdrawal in and outside the workplace. We find that Initiation is more maladaptive, and Perseverance is more adaptive for favorable work and nonwork outcomes. Individuals with high levels of Initiation tend to commit to tasks out of a sense of obligation, with the potential to overcommit and not deliver on these commitments. Those with high levels of Perseverance may experience a sense of accomplishment from fulfilling their commitments, and may be seen as responsible or reliable by others. We describe theoretical and practical implications of the mindset of obligation construct and measure, which sheds valuable insight on normative commitment, on personality traits, and other mindset constructs. These insights add understanding about the implications of the motives one has for committing to roles and responsibilities across various domains of life. ItemThe relationships among participatory management practices for improving firm profitability: Evidence from the South Korean manufacturing industry(Taylor & Francis Online, 2016-10-03) Kim, Andrea; Han, Kyongji; Kim, YongguenFollowing an internal fit perspective, this research aims to explore diverse patterns of relationships among human resource (HR) practices in relation to financial performance of manufacturing organizations in South Korea. We specifically focus on participatory management practices prevalent in manufacturing organizations, and drawing on ownership theories, we then classify them into involvement-oriented and equity-oriented practices. By analyzing a multi-source data-set of 333 South Korean large manufacturing organizations, it is substantiated that involvement-oriented practices not only have additive associations with one another, but also positively interact with equity-oriented practices in relation to the organizations’ return on equity. Our research helps to elucidate how HR practices interact to realize their performance-improving impacts. Compared to existing evidence in the Western context, our findings also call attention to contextual differences in understanding the effectiveness of HR practices in an international context. ItemMultilevel Influences on Voluntary Workplace Green Behavior: Individual Differences, Leader Behavior, and Coworker Advocacy(SAGE Journals, 2014-09-02) Kim, Andrea; Kim, Youngsang; Han, Kyongji; Jackson, Susan E.; Ployhart, Robert E.Drawing on a multilevel model of motivation in work groups and a functionalist perspective of citizenship and socially responsible behaviors, we developed and tested a multilevel model of voluntary workplace green behavior that explicates some of the reasons why employees voluntarily engage in green behavior at work. For a sample of 325 office workers organized into 80 work groups in three firms, we found that conscientiousness and moral reflectiveness were associated with the voluntary workplace green behavior of group leaders and individual group members. Furthermore, we found a direct relationship between leader green behavior and the green behavior of individual subordinates as well as an indirect relationship mediated by green advocacy within work groups. Our theory and findings shed new light on the psychological and social conditions and processes that shape voluntary workplace green behavior in organizational settings and suggest implications for organizations striving to improve their social responsibility and environmental sustainability. ItemA Mediated Moderation Model of Recruiting Socially and Environmentally Responsible Job Applicants(Wiley Online Library, 2013-03-11) Gully, Stanley M.; Phillips, Jean M.; Castellano, William G.; Han, Kyongji; Kim, AndreaSocially and environmentally responsible organizations must attend to the fit of employees with the values of the organization. Recruiting practices are a key tool for ensuring fit with an organization's culture and values. We develop and test a model of the process through which recruitment information about an organization's social and environmental responsibility values differentially affect job seeker perceived fit, attraction, and job pursuit intentions depending on job seekers’ desire to have a significant impact through work. Our model of mediated moderation is tested with a sample of 339 actual job seekers using conditional process modeling and nonlinear bootstrapping techniques. Results support expectations that advertisement messages about an organization's social and environmental responsibility values interact with applicants’ desire to have a significant impact through work to influence job pursuit intentions through the hypothesized mediational process. Implications of the model for research on recruitment and organizational social and environmental responsibility are discussed. ItemClarifying the construct of human resource systems: Relating human resource management to employee performance(Elsevier, 2012-06) Jiang, Kaifeng; Lepak, David P.; Han, Kyongji; Hong, Ying; Kim, Andrea; Winkler, Anne-LaureStrategic human resource management researchers have strongly advocated a system perspective and provided considerable evidence that certain systems of human resource practices have a significant impact on individual and organizational performance. Yet, challenges of understanding the construct of human resource systems still remain in the literature. Specifically, few efforts have been made to explicate the internal fit in human resource systems referring to how the practices in human resource systems work together. For the purpose of clarifying human resource systems construct, we review the components of human resource systems and delineate how the parts of human resource systems work together to influence employee performance. Theoretical and empirical implications for future research are also discussed. ItemAll for one and one for all: A mechanism through which broad-based employee stock ownership and employee-perceived involvement practice create a productive workforce(Wiley Online Library, 2019-02-27) Kim, Andrea; Han, KyongjiDrawing on social identity theory, this research frames a multimediational model that delineates how broad-based employee stock ownership (BESO) and employee-perceived involvement practice in tandem yield a productive workforce at the organization level. In our theoretical model, we propose that social cohesion and voluntary turnover are collective attitudinal and behavioral outcomes resulting from the shared perception of we-ness that employees experience through both participatory practices. Our path analysis of a multisource, time-lagged dataset from 176 large U.S. companies revealed the sequential mediating roles of social cohesion and voluntary turnover between these organizational practices and labor productivity. Our theoretical claims and empirical evidence will contribute to a systematic understanding of how and why BESO and employee involvement leverage greater organizational productivity from employees. ItemHigh-performance work systems as a remedy for growing pains: evidence from South Korean organizations(Wiley Online Library, 2018-04-01) Kim, Yoon-Ho; Kim, Youngsang; Kim, Andrea; Han, Kyongji; Lepak, David P.Drawing on literatures from a contingency perspective of strategic human resource management and a dynamic resource-based view, this study examines dynamic patterns of investment in high-performance work systems (HPWS) to support labor productivity of growing organizations. We analyzed a four-wave panel dataset from 267 establishments in South Korea and found that higher usage of HPWS at a prior point in time and increasing usage of HPWS over time led to consistently improved labor productivity when the employment size of establishments continued to grow. Our theory and findings provide new insight into the dynamic fit between HPWS and organizational performance over time in growing organizations. ItemHispanic and Asian performance on selection procedures: A narrative and meta-analytic review of 12 common predictors(American Psychological Association, 2017-08) Roth, Philip L.; Van Iddenkinge, Chad H.; DeOrentiis, Philip S.; Hackney, Kaylee J.; Zhang, Liwen; Buster, Maury A.Hispanics are both the largest and fastest growing minority group in the U.S. workforce. Asians also make up a substantial and increasing portion of the workforce. Unfortunately, empirical research on how these groups perform selection procedures appears to be lacking. To address this critical gap, we identified and reviewed research from a variety of literatures relevant to Hispanic and/or Asian performance on 12 commonly used staffing procedures. We also contacted authors of studies that included members of these subgroups and requested the relevant data. On the basis of our review, we provide updated estimates of Hispanic-White and Asian-White differences for the predictors, which often differ from existing estimates of these differences. Further, we provide the first known meta-analytic estimates for Hispanics and Asians on many predictors, such as vocational interests and physical ability. We discuss the implications of the findings for staffing research and practice. We also identify critical next steps for future research regarding these 2 important, yet largely neglected, groups. ItemFrom Combat to Khakis: An Exploratory Examination of Job Stress With Veterans(Taylor & Francis Online, 2015) McAllister, Charn P.; Mackey, Jeremy D.; Hackney, Kaylee J.; Perrewé, Pamela L.Veterans are having a difficult time reintegrating back into the civilian sector following their service, with nearly 44% reporting some type of problem. The experienced stress and resultant strain associated with this reintegration may be caused by an incongruence between veterans’ military identities and their civilian work environments, a form of strain we term veteran identity strain (Vet-IS). To better understand the experienced strain associated with incongruent veteran and civilian work identities, we examine the effects of military rank on Vet-IS, the moderating role of political skill on the relationship between rank and Vet-IS, and how this relationship affects the outcomes of work intensity and vigor. A mediated moderation analysis of 251 veterans provided support for most study hypotheses, which predicted that rank would have an indirect effect on work intensity and vigor through Vet-IS, conditional upon veterans’ levels of political skill. Contributions and future research directions are discussed. ItemExamining the effects of perceived pregnancy discrimination on mother and baby health(American Psychological Association, 2021-05) Hackney, Kaylee J.; Daniels, Shanna R.; Paustian-Underdahl, Samantha C.; Perrewé, Pamela L.; Mandeville, Ashley; Eaton, Asia A.Over the last decade, more than 50,000 pregnancy discrimination claims were filed in the United States (United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission [U.S. EEOC], 2018a). While pregnancy discrimination claims remain prevalent, research examining the effects of pregnancy discrimination on the well-being and health of working mothers and their babies is lacking. As such, we aim to examine the role of perceived pregnancy discrimination in the workplace on health outcomes for mothers and their babies via mother's stress. We draw on the occupational stress literature and medical research to propose that perceived pregnancy discrimination indirectly relates to mother and baby health via the mother's perceived stress. In our first study, we examine the effects of perceived pregnancy discrimination on mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms via perceived stress. In our second study, we replicate and extend our first study and examine the effects of perceived pregnancy discrimination on mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and babies' gestational age, Apgar scores, birth weight, and number of doctors' visits, through the mechanism of perceived stress. We find that perceived pregnancy discrimination indirectly relates to increased levels of postpartum depressive symptoms for the mothers, and lower birth weights, lower gestational ages, and increased number of doctors' visits for the babies, via perceived stress of the mothers during pregnancy. Implications for theory and practice, limitations, and future research are discussed. ItemA review of abusive behaviors at work: The development of a process model for studying abuse(SAGE Journals, 2018-02-07) Hackney, Kaylee J.; Perrewé, Pamela L.We develop an overarching conceptual model of abuse based on the literature and discuss common antecedents and consequences of workplace abuse. We examine numerous conceptualizations of workplace abuse from the perpetrators’ as well as the victims’ perspectives. Further, we delve into the literature to provide moderating factors affecting workplace abuse relationships as well as mediating processes that help to explain why abuse occurs and its outcomes in the workplace. ItemIt takes a village: How organizational support for adoption positively affects employees and their families(Wiley Online Library, 2021-06-12) Quade, Matthew J.; Hackney, Kaylee J.; Carlson, Dawn S.; Hanlon, Ryan P.Extending the integration of conservation of resources theory with the spillover–crossover model, we broaden the scope of types of organizational support by examining the influence of organizational support for adoption (OSFA) as a work resource that could benefit employees, their spouse, and their adopted child. Specifically, we examine how this resource of OSFA contributes to job incumbent work–family enrichment (WFE) and indirectly to a work outcome (i.e., affective commitment) and spills over to impact family outcomes (i.e., attachment, relationship tension, and family functioning). Further, we examine the crossover to the spouse through positive crossover transmission to his/her commitment to the job incumbent’s organization and his/her family outcomes. Using a matched sample of 592 couples that had adopted a child, we found that the resource of OSFA indirectly influences the job incumbent’s work and family outcomes as expected. Further, we found OSFA indirectly influences the spouse’s commitment to the job incumbent’s organization and the spouse’s family outcomes through WFE and positive crossover transmission. Evidence of the content and construct validity of OSFA is also presented. Implications, both theoretical and practical, and suggestions for future research are discussed. ItemBeyond the Bottom Line: Don’t Forget to Consider the Role of the Family(SAGE Journals, 2021-07-18) Quade, Matthew J.; Wan, Maggie; Carlson, Dawn S.; Kacmar, K. Michele; Greenbaum, Rebecca L.Our work investigates the influence of supervisor bottom-line mentality (SBLM) (i.e., a one-dimensional focus on bottom-line outcomes to the exclusion of other organizational priorities) on employees’ organizational commitment via the work-family interface as well as the crossover effects of SBLM on the organizational commitment of the employees’ spouse. More specifically, we examined how SBLM contributes to work-family conflict (WFC) and impacts the experienced commitment of the dyad along three paths. We conducted two studies across three samples (Study 1, Sample A: 186 employees; Study 1, Sample B: 258 employees; Study 2: 399 employee-spouse dyads) to demonstrate the unique role of SBLM in this context and find support for the hypothesized relationships. First, the resource drain of SBLM had a spillover effect through WFC to decrease the employee’s commitment at work. Second, it crossed over to the spouse to reduce their own organizational commitment due to the employee being a source of family undermining, which subsequently influenced the spouse’s family-work conflict (FWC). Third, SBLM impacted the spouse such that it crossed back to contribute to decreased organizational commitment for the employee. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed as well as directions for future research. ItemManagement without morals: Construct development and initial testing of amoral management(SAGE Journals, 2020-11-18) Quade, Matthew J.; Bonner, Julena. M; Greenbaum, Rebecca L.What happens when leaders do not respond to the ethical components of business situations? We study this question by examining amoral management, which entails a lack of response from leaders during ethical situations. Our work helps establish amoral management, a leadership style that is thought to be quite common in practice, in the behavioral ethics literature by first validating an empirical measure. Then, we examine an initial nomological network of amoral management and by demonstrating that it negatively affects employees. Drawing on moral conation theory (Hannah et al., 2011a), we argue that amoral management leads to lower levels of moral courage among employees. Unfortunately, with lower levels of moral courage, employees become more susceptible to engaging in unethical behavior. Interestingly, we find that the negative relationship between amoral management and moral courage is exacerbated under the condition of an ethical environment, which therefore also exacerbates employees’ unethical conduct (i.e., a first-stage moderated-mediation model). We provide theoretical contributions and practical implications regarding amoral management as an important yet understudied ethics-based leadership style, as well as make suggestions for future research. Item“If Only My Coworker Was More Ethical”: When Ethical and Performance Comparisons Lead to Negative Emotions, Social Undermining, and Ostracism(Springer Nature, 2018-03-21) Quade, Matthew J.; Greenbaum, Rebecca L.; Mawritz, Mary B.Drawing on social comparison theory, we investigate employees’ ethical and performance comparisons relative to a similar coworker and subsequent emotional and behavioral responses. We test our theoretically driven hypotheses across two studies. Study 1, a cross-sectional field study (N = 310 employee–coworker dyads), reveals that employees who perceive they are more ethical than their coworkers (i.e., more ethical comparison) experience negative emotions toward the comparison coworkers and those feelings are even stronger when the employees perceive they are lower performers than their coworkers (i.e., lower-performance comparison). Results also reveal that negative emotions mediate the indirect relationship between being more ethical than a coworker, but also being a lower performer than that coworker onto (a) social undermining and (b) ostracism. Study 2, a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental design (N = 121), provides further support for our moderated mediation model. Results reveal that participants experience negative emotions when they receive information that they are more ethical than a comparison participant. Negative emotions are amplified if the participant is told they were a lower performer than the comparison participant. Those participants indicate their desire to mistreat and ignore the comparison participant if given the opportunity. Thus, we find support for our hypotheses using a multi-method design. ItemThe influence of supervisor bottom-line mentality and employee bottom-line mentality on leader-member exchange and subsequent employee performance(SAGE Journals, 2019-07) Quade, Matthew J.; McLarty, Benjamin D.; Bonner, Julena M.Are supervisors who care more about profits than employee well-being seen by employees as being good exchange partners? How do employees perceive and respond to supervisors who treat the bottom line as more important than anything else? Supervisors who hold a bottom-line mentality (BLM) neglect competing priorities such as employee well-being and ethical practices to focus on securing bottom-line success. We find high-BLM supervisors serve as low-quality exchange partners with their employees, resulting in employee perceptions of low-quality leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships. In turn, employees reciprocate by withholding the very thing the supervisor desires—performance—in order to maintain balance in the exchange relationship. As such, supervisors who possess a BLM could actually be negatively impacting the organization’s bottom line through the harmful social exchange relationships they engender with their employees and their impact on employee task performance. We also examine the moderating role of employee BLM on these relationships. When employee BLM is low, we observe a greater negative effect on employee value judgments of the supervisor (i.e. reduced LMX perceptions) and lower employee performance. We test and find support for all of our hypotheses in two multi-source (i.e. employee-supervisor dyads), time-lagged field studies (N = 189 and N = 244). ItemEmployee unethical behavior to shame as an indicator of self-image threat and exemplification as a form of self-image protection: The exacerbating role of supervisor bottom-line mentality(American Psychological Association, 2017-08) Bonner, Julena M.; Greenbaum, Rebecca L.; Quade, Matthew J.Employee unethical behavior continues to be an area of interest as real-world business scandals persist. We investigate what happens after people engage in unethical behavior. Drawing from emotion theories (e.g., Tangney & Dearing, 2002) and the self-presentation literature (e.g., Leary & Miller, 2000), we first argue that people are socialized to experience shame after moral violations (Hypothesis 1). People then manage their shame and try to protect their self-images by engaging in exemplification behaviors (i.e., self-sacrificial behaviors that give the attribution of being a dedicated person; Hypothesis 2). We also examine the moderating role of supervisor bottom-line mentality (BLM; i.e., a supervisor's singular focus on pursuing bottom-line outcomes) in relation to our theoretical model. We argue that high supervisor BLM intensifies the employee unethical behavior to shame relationship (Hypothesis 3) and results in heightened exemplification as a way to protect one's self-image by portraying the self as a dedicated person who is worthy of association (Hypothesis 4). We test our theoretical model across 2 experimental studies and 2 field studies. Although our results provide general support for Hypotheses 1, 2, and 3, our results produced mixed findings for Hypothesis 4. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Item“I don't want to be near you, unless…”: The interactive effect of unethical behavior and performance onto relationship conflict and workplace ostracism(Wiley Online Library, 2016-03) Quade, Matthew J.; Greenbaum, Rebecca L.; Petrenko, Oleg V.Examined through the lens of moral psychology, we investigate when and why employees’ unethical behaviors may be tolerated versus rejected. Specifically, we examine the interactive effect of employees’ unethical behaviors and job performance onto relationship conflict, and whether such conflict eventuates in workplace ostracism. Although employees’ unethical behaviors typically go against moral norms, high job performance may provide a motivated reason to ignore moral violations. In this regard, we predict that job performance will mitigate the relationship between employee unethical behavior and workplace ostracism, as mediated by relationship conflict. Study 1, a multisource field study, tests and provides support for Hypotheses 1 and 2. Study 2, also a multisource field study, provides support for our fully specified model. Study 3, a time-lagged field study, provides support for our theoretical model while controlling for employees’ negative affectivity and ethical environment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ItemUsing Spreadsheet Modeling to Teach Exchange Curves (Optimal Policy Curves) in Inventory Management(Wiley Online Library, 2016-01) Strakos, Joshua K.Inventory management is widely researched and the topic is taught in business programs across the spectrum of operations and supply chain management. However, the concepts are notoriously difficult for students to practice once they finish school and become managers responsible for inventory control. This article explains the structure and details of an inventory management class module designed to bridge the gap between learning inventory management theory and applying the learning to practice. Through an active learning exercise, groups of logistics management graduate students in two sections of an introductory inventory management class (in-residence and online) are taught the exchange curve concept, introduced to its use in practice, and given a tool for implementing this learning in a variety of practical scenarios. The exercise is valuable as it is well suited for students with a limited math background because it allows the exchange curve concept to be taught and demonstrated without presenting complicated mathematics. A three-tiered assessment of the exercise reveals its effectiveness in meeting the goals of providing an engaging and interesting use of learning time and giving the students an in-depth practical understanding of the exchange curve concept. The exercise is designed to be equally useful for application in an undergraduate class. ItemDepartment of Defense energy policy and research: A framework to support strategy(Elsevier, 2016-05) Strakos, Joshua K.; Quintanilla, Jose A.; Huscroft, Joseph R.The Department of Defense (DOD) is the major consumer of energy within the Federal government, and it has been directed to implement cost cutting measures related to energy dependence through numerous Executive Orders and Congressional legislation. As a result, the DOD released an Energy Strategy which outlines ways to reduce energy requirements in order to meet both Presidential and Congressional mandates for energy security. With this research, we provide a historical review (1973–2014) of energy policy, legislation, and research. Additionally we identify gaps between strategy and research. The results show that DOD energy research lacks a unifying structure and guiding framework. We propose a knowledge management framework to unify and guide research efforts in direct support of the DOD Energy Strategy.