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ItemInitial Development and Validation of the Elementary Student Engagement Survey (ESES)(2020-03-16) Carmona Reyes, Jorge; Attai, Shanna; Davis, John; York, Judy; Ranney, Kerri; Hyde, Truell W.Student engagement has been researched from multiple perspectives in the literature due to its impact on academic attainment and other variables of interest. However, most of the research has focused on grades above elementary school, leaving a gap on student engagement at the elementary level. This study reports on the psychometrics of a newly developed student engagement instrument for elementary school. The hypothesis assumes that student engagement for elementary school students is a metaconstruct comprised of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional metaconstructs. This instrument named The Elementary Student Engagement Survey (ESES) instrument was piloted employing a sample of 202 minors. ItemInitial Development and Validation of the Student Engagement for Students for Flexible Learning Environments (STUD-E Sflex) Assessment for Effective Intervention(2020-01-10) Carmona Reyes, Jorge; York, Judy; Attai, Shanna L., 1987-; Ranney, Kerri; Davis, John; Howell, Leanne; Altmann, Rob; Hyde, Truell Wayne.Student engagement has been researched from multiple perspectives due to its impact on academic skill attainment. However, most of this research has focused on grades above elementary school, leaving a gap in student engagement at the elementary level. This study reports on the psychometrics of a newly developed instrument designed to measure elementary school student engagement. The hypothesis assumes that student engagement for elementary school students is a meta-construct comprised of several specific constructs (e.g. Participation, Effort, Autonomy, Competence, Sense of Belonging and Positive Relationships). This study reports on preliminary development and validation of a 42-item, multidimensional, self-report measure of elementary students’ engagement. This instrument, The Student Engagement for Students for Flexible Learning Environments (STUD-E Sflex) was piloted employing a target sample of 202 students in third and fourth grade. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated the model specified above provided evidence for the each of the six hypothesized constructs. Discussions and implications of these findings are presented in the context of elementary student engagement. ItemInvestigating the Impact of Flexible Furniture in the elementary Classroom(2020-01-24) Attai, Shanna L., 1987-; Carmona Reyes, Jorge; Davis, John; York, Judy; Ranney, Kerri; Hyde, TruellEducators are beginning to consider the physical learning environment as an additional resource to meet the learning outcomes in modern classrooms. In order to better utilize classroom space, schools have begun to eliminate desks and chairs replacing “traditional” furniture with “flexible” furniture, capable of multiple reconfigurations to facilitate teaching and learning. The impact of flexible furniture in elementary classrooms has little exploration. This study investigates the various impacts flexible furniture paired with teacher professional development (PD) can have on the elementary classroom. A total of ten classrooms were included in the study with 3rd and 4th graders (N = 206 students). Classrooms were observed biweekly for eight weeks and assigned to one of two groups: Group A received Professional Development (PD) and flexible furniture while Group B maintained traditional furniture. During observations three students were randomly selected per classroom and continuously monitored throughout each observation (n = 30 students). This study is twofold, first, a between-groups design and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to assess the effect of the intervention using pre-intervention self-assessment results as the covariate. As predicted, students who experienced flexible furniture reported greater satisfaction with the learning environment than did peers with traditional furniture. Secondly, a series of independent samples t-test demonstrated classrooms with flexible furniture provided more opportunities for student autonomy and use of furniture for learning. Insight on flexible furniture, its impact in the elementary classroom and implications and future research are discussed. ItemTransforming teacher pedagogy to maximize 21st century skills through the learning environment(2020-01-24) Attai, Shanna L., 1987-; Carmona Reyes, Jorge; Davis, John; York, Judy; Ranney, Kerri; Ratliff, Lauren; Hyde, TruellAs schools redesign learning environments and equip classrooms with flexible furniture, it is imperative to examine this impact on teacher pedagogy and student learning. We investigated if classrooms equipped with flexible furniture provided students more opportunities to engage in collaboration, communication, critical thinking skills, and creativity. A between-groups research design was used; classrooms were assigned to one of two groups: The intervention group received professional development (PD) and flexible furniture for eight weeks (n = 4 classrooms), and the control group maintained traditional furniture (n = 10 classrooms). Total recruitment included 327 students in grades two to four, with a random selection of 42 students. Classrooms were observed biweekly for eight weeks. Results of a series of independent sample t-test demonstrated teachers in classrooms with flexible furniture provided more opportunities for students to participate and actively engage in 21st century learning skills.