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Item1980 : Reagan, Carter, and the politics of religion in America.(2010-02-02T19:54:55Z) Hogue, Andrew P.; Medhurst, Martin J.; Political Science.; Baylor University. Dept. of Political Science.This dissertation examines the political uses of religion in the 1980 presidential election, doing so within the broader context of how and why those uses emerged, as well as how they functioned to usher in a new era, setting the parameters for future presidential candidates' uses of religion in presidential elections. I go about this by first examining several streams that converged in 1980, among them: the expansion of the American conservative movement upon its inclusion of religious conservatism as a major concern; the various historical factors that led to the engagement of religious conservatives in American politics; the surfacing of religious rhetoric in presidential politics during the 1976 election; and the disappointment experienced by religious conservatives during the Carter presidency. I then closely examine of the candidacies of Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, and John B. Anderson in 1980, showing the ways in which these candidates constructed lasting discourses of political religion and signaled the emergence of a new religious era in presidential politics. Finally, I observe the legacy of the 1980 presidential election, offering lessons from it to inform what appears to be the present dawn of a new religious era in American politics. ItemThe 1995 Congressional debate over partial birth abortion: President Clinton’s veto and the aftermath.(2007-12-03T18:41:19Z) Gura, Corrina N.; Medhurst, Martin J.; Communication Studies.; Baylor University. Dept. of Communication Studies.In 1995 Congress voted to ban a late-term abortion method known as Partial Birth Abortion (PBA). The contentious debate saw many typically pro-choice representatives joining pro-life members of Congress to oppose PBA. Major components of the debates are expert testimonies and use of public moral argument. President Clinton vetoed this popular bill. In addition to sending a press release to Congress, Clinton staged an emotional press conference during which women told the media about their abortions. This strategy focused the media on these women and their stories, rather than the Congressional arguments. Since 1995 Congress has continued its efforts to chip away at the broad grant of abortion rights in Roe v. Wade; they discovered new ways to place federal restrictions upon abortion. Congress has continued to develop new legislation modeled after the 1995 PBA Ban and likely will continue to do so in the future. ItemA 2007 aircraft-based study of plumes from biomass burning origin from Mexico and Central America advected over south Texas and the western Gulf of Mexico.(2009-06-10T12:57:33Z) Alvarez, Sergio L.; Shauck, Maxwell Eustace.; Air Science.; Baylor University. Institute for Air Science.Biomass burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation which includes grasslands, forests, and agricultural lands (Levin, 1998). It is a global phenomenon and serves a multitude of purposes such as clearing of forests and brushland for agricultural use; control of weeds; production of charcoal; and energy production for cooking and heating (Crutzen and Andreae, 1990). The Baylor Institute for Air Science (BIAS) equipped an aircraft to measure trace gases and aerosols during two science flights in the south Texas region. One science flight was flown to collect "background" continental and marine layer air data and the other to collect data in biomass-burning smoke plumes from Mexico and Central American countries. Measurements were taken in the geographic region along the US-Mexico Border and adjacent area over the western Gulf of Mexico. Results of this study indicate that individual smoke plumes may occur episodically over the Texas border region to Mexico under prevailing southeasterly wind directions. The origin of these plumes may be diverse ranging from individual local fire emissions to medium range transport of biomass burning. Item5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions of the rat amygdala increase learned fear behavior.(2009-06-01T19:21:41Z) Lasher, Bonnie Ka.; Keele, N. Bradley.; Psychology and Neuroscience.; Baylor University. Dept. of Psychology and Neuroscience.The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) plays a key role in learned fear and anxiety, while dysfunctional LA circuitry is implicated in fear and anxiety psychopathologies. The LA is under inhibitory modulation and prone to hyperexcitation with inhibitory release. This hyperexcitation can result in enhanced fear and anxiety behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) is also implicated in fear and anxiety disorders, plus, 5-HTergic innervation of the LA is inhibitory. Reduction in 5-HTergic control may induce hyperexcitation, suggesting a 5-HTergic mechanism in fear and anxiety disorders. This study accesses the effects of reduced 5-HT in the LA on conditioned fear behavior responses by lesioning 5-HT fibers with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and measuring fear potentiated startle. Seizure susceptibility after lowered 5-HT was also examined. Low-5-HT in the LA enhanced fear potentiated startle. This study implies that a reduction in 5-HT in the LA results in abnormal fear and anxiety possibly due to hyperexcitation. Item“A beautiful, strong friendship to bless them both” : cross-gender friendship in The Woman in White and Little Women.(2022-04-19) Flint, Justice, 1995-; Pond, Kristen A.The marriage plot is intimately connected to the form of the nineteenth century novel, both giving shape to and being shaped by it. Its dominance, however, often precludes the representation of other crucial relationships in fiction, especially cross-gender friendships. Scholarly attention to heterosocial relationships in the Victorian novel has often been eclipsed not only by studies of the marriage plot but by attention to same-gender friendships in this literary period. In this thesis, I examine two notable cross-gender friendships in nineteenth century fiction, namely, that of Walter Hartright and Marian Halcombe in Wilkie Collins’s The Woman in White (1859), and that of Josephine “Jo” March and Theodore “Laurie” Laurence in Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women (1868). I highlight the ways in which these depictions demonstrate both the unique challenges and unique benefits of cross-gender friendship and consider the insights that these works offer for broader reflection on cross-gender friendship and on its representation in literature, as well as on the intriguing connections between narratives of friendship and our reading relationships to—and expectations of—the novel. ItemA beta regression approach to nonparametric longitudinal data classification in clinical trials.(2022-04-07) Hernandez, Roberto Sergio, 1995-; Tubbs, Jack Dale.Classification is an important topic in statistical analysis. For example, in applications involving clinical trials, an often seen objective is to determine whether or not novel medicines and treatments differ from existing standards of care. There are numerous methods and approaches in the literature for this problem when the endpoint of interest is normally distributed or can be approximated by an asymptotic Normal distribution, yet, the approaches when using a non-normally distributed endpoint are limited. This is especially true when these endpoints are correlated across time. In this dissertation, we investigated several techniques for use with longitudinal, repeated measures data where there is a special interest in adapting some recent results found in the literature on Beta regression. The proposed methods provided a nonparametric, with regard to the design endpoint, model that can be used in the repeated measures problem. ItemA brief seizure prior to learning selectively impairs hippocampal learning and memory and is associated with alterations in PI3K/Akt/mTOR and FMRP signaling.(2018-06-11) Holley, Andrew Jacob, 1990-; Lugo, Joaquin N.Studies utilizing rodent models of acute seizures have indicated that a single brief seizure impairs retention of spatial and contextual memory. However, the timespan for which a solitary seizure can impact memory or which kinds of memory it can hinder are obscure. Additionally, evidence for a mechanism underlying seizure-induced memory impairment is lacking. Addressing the first question, we induced a seizure and then trained mice in trace fear conditioning, novel object recognition, or the accelerating rotarod and later examined memory at various time points following the seizure. We also examined activity levels and anxiety-like behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze (EPM). We investigated a potential mechanism using western blot analysis to assess PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling at time points correlated with the memory tests. We also stained brain tissue taken at 24 hours and one week using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) to examine for gross damage after a seizure. In the open field, we found a reduction in locomotion 24 hours, but not one week after a seizure. Anxiety-like behavior in the EPM was unchanged. Hippocampal trace fear memory was impaired at 24 hours and one week in mice that experienced a seizure one hour prior to training. Moreover, the level of impairment was more prominent during the one week test. In contrast, non-hippocampal learning and memory was unaffected in the NOR and rotarod tasks. Western analysis revealed increased hippocampal phospho-S6 and total FMRP one hour after a seizure. H&E stained tissue revealed no indication of cellular damage or gross lesions. Together our data indicates that a brief seizure selectively impairs hippocampal learning and memory, while sparing non-hippocampal learning and memory. Increased PI3K/Akt/mTOR and altered FMRP signaling one hour after a seizure suggests that changes to de novo protein synthesis necessary for memory consolidation underlie the memory impairments we observed. The lack of overt damage and transient changes in molecular signaling in the current study in comparison to studies using chronic and multiple seizure models suggests a different mechanism underlies memory impairment associated with brief seizure activity. ItemA case study : the effects of the AutisMate application on a 12 year-old boy with ASD.(2015-12-01) Wall, Natalie G., 1992-; Ivey-Hatz, Julie K., 1971-The study is to show if iPad application AutisMate is effective in promoting the modeling of social communication and social interaction skills in a 12 year old boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder using a single subject embedded case study. It calls attention to the use of assistive technology in school settings for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The themes explored are the independence of the boy, his social communication skills, and social interaction skills. A late theme was his non-compliant behavior in math class. Researchers found that many variables could have affected the difference on the two measures Gilliam Autism Rating Scale and Social Communication Questionnaire from pre to post tests, and further research is needed. There were no conclusive results that AutisMate had a relationship with the boy's social interaction and communication skills. ItemA case study of four teachers' experiences while implementing the latest version of the Eureka Math curriculum in the state of Louisiana.(2022-04-28) Lein Authement, Melissa M., 1990-; Pratt, Sarah Smitherman.The Louisiana Department of Education (LDOE) develops all mathematic standards and curricula in Louisiana. Once approved, these items become the officially mandated curricula that each school must teach. LDOE is also responsible for the flow down of the official curricula to each school system, plus providing the appropriate amount of training to the math teachers to effectively implement the new curricula. For example, in 2017, a statewide assessment provided information on student mathematical proficiency. Based on the poor results, and improved mandated set of standards and curricula, LDOE launched a rubric of approved research-based curricula required for low performing schools. One of the curriculum options was Eureka Math Curriculum. In response to the LDOE Curriculum mandates St. Tammany Parish Public Schools (STPPS) decided in 2020 to implement the same required LDOE curriculum to all schools in the district no matter their performance. This change in curriculum culminated in the third curriculum between 2017–2020 change for most math teachers in the district. This study focused on the experiences of selected math teachers charged with implementing the Eureka Math curriculum into the STPPS. The data collected consisted of structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with four fourth and fifth-grade teachers school system. Hargreaves (1998) Changing Teachers, Changing Times framed this study. Using Hargreaves’s (1998) framework for the study, the researcher identified four obstacles teachers faced implementing a mandated curriculum. Finally, the researcher concludes with recommendations for best practices when implementing any mandated math curriculum. The researcher identified Eureka Math as the teachers’ primary change element to implement curricula changes. Using Hargreaves’s (1998) outline, the researcher identified four obstacles to overcome and offered three solutions towards the successful implementation of Eureka Math. The obstacles included: pacing and planning, lack of resources, need for increased support, and teacher autonomy. This study identifies three best practices for successfully implementing the challenging Eureka Math: increased support, leniency on the scope and sequence of curricula implementation, and a new requirement for focused and tailored instruction sessions for each level of math teachers. ItemA case study of how and if a professional development model based on the TPACK framework builds teachers’ capacity for technology integration.(2019-03-18) Odajima, Rebecca, 1974-; Talbert, Tony L.Digital technologies are prevalent in society and K-12 classrooms today and the belief that educational technology can be a transformative agent of change in education is ever increasing. However, the use of technology as a transformative learning tool for all students has not yet been realized. Research in this area indicates that teachers are the leading factor impacting the utilization of technology for learning. Focused professional development along with time to develop curriculum and lessons has been identified as critical factors in changing the way teachers and students utilize technology. The purpose of this explanatory single case study, with multiple units of analysis, was to examine the experiences and practices of nine teachers in a technology-rich high school setting to better understand the impact of a TPACK based professional development model, to understand how and why teachers make decisions regarding instructional technology integration, and to determine how their technology integration met the TPACK model of instruction. Findings from the study revealed that the professional development model based on TPACK framework and effective professional development strategies increased teachers’ use of technology, how they considered using technology and changed their instructional focus from teacher to student-centered practices. Additionally, teachers’ considerations for instructional technology during planning were influenced by their teacher-centered or student-centered ideas. Finally, teachers who successfully implemented technology based on the Technology Integration Observation Instrument were those who were well versed in active learning strategies, learner-centered in their planning and implementation of instructional strategies, have the greatest number of years experience and exposure to the TPACK training model, while having varying levels of technology efficacy. The study provided evidence to support the idea that transformational educational change through technology has little to do with the technology itself; instead, it is dependent on the pedagogical knowledge of the teacher and the context of the professional development provided to teachers. It is increasingly evident that the change sought in teaching and learning will only come about by a change in the pedagogical practice of teachers who are appropriately prepared with student-centered learning activities and content knowledge that utilizes technology as an instructional tool in order to facilitate and impact learning. ItemA case study of Mission Guatemala’s nutrition outreach feeding programs for children in Guatemala.(2016-04-19) Gossett, Jakalyn, 1991-; Walter, Janelle Marshall.Guatemala is a country with the fourth highest rate of chronic undernutrition in the world and the highest rate in Latin America and the Caribbean . Nutrition initiatives with feeding programs have been incorporated into communities to help alleviate childhood undernourishment. In May 2015, a qualitative descriptive study explored various feeding programs offered in elementary schools in communities near Panajachel, Guatemala with a primary objective to provide up-to-date information on nutrition intervention feeding programs and better assess the performance of these programs. The information gathered in this study aims to facilitate future research with more intense investigation of childhood malnutrition and feeding programs offered in Guatemala. ItemA case study on the recruitment and hiring of African American faculty in higher education : perspectives of faculty and administrators.(2021-11-16) Arnold, Debra D., 1970-; Cooper, Sandra Bennett.This case study examined the recruitment and hiring practices of African American faculty in higher education at primarily White institutions (PWIs) in the southeast region of the United States. In higher education, African American faculty remain underrepresented in PWIs. African American faculty provide value to students during their educational journeys, and the lack of their presence is of concern. This research into this phenomenon included three universities within the southeastern region, all part of the same university system and located within 150 miles of one another. The three universities are research institutions, and each has racial minority student populations. Two of the universities in this study have a low percentage of African American faculty. The third university maintains an equal number of African American and White American faculty. Given the colleges’ proximity, understanding the recruitment strategies of each assisted with providing recommendations for the recruitment, hiring, and retention of African American faculty. This study examined faculty and administrator perspectives on biases that can affect the recruitment and hiring process. These biases include explicit, implicit, and unconscious, each having significant differences. Bias can knowingly and unknowingly occur in decision-making, as these biases are neurological. By nature, everyone holds some bias, which can affect the thinking process and impact hiring at the recruitment level. In addition, biases can affect an institution’s ability to achieve diversity (Agarwal, 2018) and inclusion, which can conflict with an institution’s stated values. Examining and understanding these biases assist individuals in recognizing and managing their thoughts during the decision-making process. The results of this study informed suggestions for positive shifts in the recruitment of African American faculty in PWIs within the United States. A centralized process for the recruitment and hiring process is recommended with oversight by Human Resources. The study revealed that bias occurred in the course of employment for faculty and administrators. Awareness of these biases is the key to affecting a culture change within PWIs. Such changes positively impacted African American students and highlighted the importance of African American faculty in their educational journeys. ItemA close look at the electrostatic properties of Cu, Zn-Superoxide dismutase.(2015-12-01) Shi, Yunhua, 1987-; Shaw, Bryan Francis, 1976-Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in the gene encoding Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for 1-2% of ALS cases. Numerous studies have proved that SOD1 forms neurotoxic aggregates, which add toxicity to motor neurons through a widely accepted “gain of function” mechanism. The electrostatic potential is an overlooked important biophysical property that can affect the aggregation propensity of SOD1. Protein net charge, a good representative of the electrostatic surface potential, is tightly regulated by a network of solvent accessible ionizable amino acid residues and coordinated small molecules such as water and metal ions. Few tools exist to detailed study the electrostatic potential of proteins, however, in this dissertation, we introduced capillary electrophoresis in conjunction with protein charge ladders to i) experimentally measure the net charge of WT and ALS-variant mutant SOD1 under various conditions, and ii) investigate the effect of electrostatic potential on the interaction between SOD1 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules. Also, we predict and detect the deamidation of asparagine residues of Cu, Zn-SOD1 (human erythrocytes). With our novel tools, we successfully detect this sub-Dalton post-translational modification (< 1 Da) in aged Cu, Zn-SOD1 purified from human erythrocytes. The deamidation of SOD1 was proved to produce an ALS mutant analog which shares similar biochemical and biophysical properties to ALS mutant N139D. This solvent catalyzed spontaneous deamidation of SOD1 is incentive for understanding the mechanism of sporadic ALS. Finally, we study the effect of an external electric field on the structure of cytosolic proteins, and found that the electric field can induce the monomerization of metal replete A4V SOD1 but not apo form or that of the WT SOD1. We hypothesize that this abnormal monomerization on a relatively thermally stable protein is due to the induced rotational torque generated by the applied external electric field on the preexisted macrodipole of each subunit of SOD1. Thus, in this study, we are the first, to the best of our knowledge, to investigate the effect of a physiologically relevant electric field on the structure of a cytosolic protein. ItemA cognitive poetic exploration of Elena Poniatowska’s La noche de Tlatelolco.(2021-05-04) Boyd, Megan Michelle, 1996-; McNair, Alexander J.This study of Elena Poniatowska’s La noche de Tlateloco is based on a cognitive poetic approach to explore readers’ perceptions of the work. It affirms both the historical veracity and literary ingenuity of the text by highlighting literary elements and asserting that they strengthen rather than weaken readers’ historical understanding of the censured collective trauma. This study applies theories of readers’ literary perceptions to investigate the work as a sensorially immersive experience. It analyzes the emotional atmospheres in “Ganar la calle” and “La noche de Tlatelolco” by highlighting cognitive qualities of emotions within the text. It then postulates that the creative presentation of La noche draws readers’ attention to historical silences and immerses them into parts of the past often overlooked by conventional historiography. ItemA collective case study exploring high school senior perspectives of post-graduation motivations and preparation in five different educational settings.(2021-11-19) Smith, Jeffrey Scott, 1968-; Meehan, Jessica Padrón.Education improvement has become a national imperative. Low graduation rates, standardized test failures, and overall success rates falling significantly behind in global competition have forced the dialogue towards alternatives to public education (Stewart, 2012). As the United States continues to trail other countries in educational success, it raises concerns about what environment is the most effective for student success in today’s economic and cultural states. In a response to this educational concern, today’s students have seen the emergence of campus alternatives, and with these differing environments, research needs to provide clarity to the results produced from each environment, and if these results prepare all students for what comes after graduation. Equally important is the exploration of how each of these environments may help or hinder motivation for students and hear this information from the students directly. This collective case study gives high school students that voice. This study begins with a criterion-based sample of one to three students attending each of five specific categories of learning institutions—a public school setting, a private school setting, a home-school setting, a charter school setting, and a final group from an innovative or alternative education setting. Through a series of interviews and observations of the various learning environments, the student stories compared common experiences, differences, and learning paths. This anthology of research information presented an understanding of each of their learning environments, motivational influences, and how these students believe their experiences prepared them for what comes next. The power of the responses evidenced commanding themes throughout each distinct case and revealed compelling patterns common among all five cases. The result was a better explanation of experiences from the student's point of view, a clearer picture of motivations—both extrinsic and intrinsic—and strong patterns of concepts that can create influential change in any educational setting. The implications show the power of student's voices in the education process, setting the foundation for future studies that will incorporate the significant contribution made by the ones affected the most by current practices—the voice of the student. ItemA collective case study on student advocacy services for iGen students in higher education.(2021-11-16) Cloud, Lourdes Moreno, 1976-; Meehan, Jessica Padrón.Generation Z or iGen is the current generation attending colleges and universities, and their needs differ from their predecessors. Public State University’s Student Advocacy and Assistance Office began shifting the services provided to this specific population to best serve them. Unlike prior generations, they are highly aware of themselves as individuals and crave more support. Gen Z is more diverse, technologically connected, and culturally and politically engaged. They crave autonomy yet need to feel validated (Twenge, 2017). iGen students rely on their generational characteristics of being dependent on technology, private, and inquisitive. They are more likely to have mental health issues such as anxiety and depression (Writter, 2017). Due to their mental health awareness, they seek and expect services that holistically support their educational journeys (Jones, 2019). They expect this support from faculty, staff, and peers (Rutter, 2019), not just from a clinician; therefore, it is the priority of the SAA Office to provide these services to them. The purpose of this qualitative collective case study was to establish a series of cases that narrate the iGen student perception of how services provided by the SAA Office impacted them while at the university. The research built upon the primary question: how do iGen students at PSU perceive the SAA Office’s services impacted them? The data collection included one-on-one interviews and journal collections of five iGen students who utilized the services of the SAA Office. The application of the student development theory, Nevitt Sanford’s Theory of Challenge and Support, guided the research process related to students becoming independent through overcoming challenges and engaging in support. The themes identified through a cross-case analysis were mental wellness, iGen student personality traits, and overcoming challenges as iGen students. These themes substantiated that the iGen college students need support from university staff to ensure their academic and personal growth, development, and success. The researcher sought to determine how iGen students felt that SAA services influenced their overall college experience at PSU. The results of this study reveal rich insights and beneficial recommendations for improving SAA services based on the perceptions of iGen students. ItemA collective multiple case study regarding mandatory advising and degree mapping for Early College High School students.(2021-07-21) Madrigal, Tanya, 1976-; Blevins, Brooke E.Early College High Schools (ECHS) began in 2002 in response to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, lower socioeconomic status, and first-time college students in higher education. Credit-bearing college courses replace students’ traditional high school classes, so the students earn an associate degree upon graduation from high school. The goal for ECHS participants is to continue their education at a university to complete their four-year degrees. This qualitative multiple case study rooted in the practitioner inquiry tradition explored why ECHS students do not complete their bachelor’s degree, along with possible solutions to the existing problem. Specifically, this study examined if mandatory advising and degree mapping helped ECHS students feel more confident about their transfer to a four-year institution. The study employed Schlossberg’s Transition theory (Schlossberg, 2011), focusing on situation, self, support, and strategies. The framework helped to understand how mandatory advising and degree mapping influenced ECHS students’ confidence and preparedness to transfer to a four-year institution. Data collection involved using a questionnaire regarding the student’s perception of preparedness for transfer and possible barriers and issues that could inhibit them from completing their bachelor's degree. Themes emerged from the data, with the first theme being the need for a college advisor to complete advising and degree mapping sessions. The second theme included increasing the ECHS student’s sense of preparedness for transfer to a four-year institution. Next, a discussion around potential barriers that could impede their completion of bachelor’s degrees emerged. Lastly, financial literacy is needed to help ECHS students understand various forms of available aids to help finance their education. This research is vital as more ECHSs open every year across the country. For example, in 2002, when ECHS launched, there were three ECHS programs (Berger et al., 2014). As of 2020, there were 170 ECHSs in Texas, 100 in North Carolina, 100 in Michigan, and many more across the United States (Arshavsky, 2020). Thus, the ECHS program is expanding across the country exponentially, and the findings from this research can help more ECHS students have a successful transition to higher education and complete their bachelor's degrees. ItemA college readiness intervention program’s impact on college-going self-efficacy and college knowledge.(2018-07-18) Wilson, Robin Denise, 1962-; Saxon, Terrill F.EnAbled for College functions as a model postsecondary education (PSE) transition program to assist high school students who are at risk and/or low socioeconomic status. EnAbled for College pairs graduate student mentors with high school students who meet weekly with students to cover a research based curriculum designed to instill strategies for persisting until high school graduation and skills for preparing for PSE attainment and success. This study analyzes the results for a three-year span of the program and includes a comparison group that is similar in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, and first generation status. The participants for the comparison group were selected based on a proportional stratified sample to represent the demographics of the EnAbled for College participants. The study was a quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design with a post hoc data analysis. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were obtained from both groups and a multiple regression analysis was used to measure growth in self-efficacy attendance, self-efficacy persistence, and college knowledge. The National Student Clearinghouse data was used to determine enrollment in PSE and a logistic regression was used to measure the differences in PSE enrollment between groups. The findings indicate the EnAbled for College participants’ high school graduation, college attendance, and growth in college knowledge were statistically different from the comparison group. PSE enrollment for the EnAbled for College participants exceeded the comparison group as well as the national average. The analysis did not show a statistical difference between groups for self-efficacy attendance and persistence, but the difference in growth from the pre- to the post-surveys for the EnAbled for College participants exceeded the comparison group. The program provides interventions for students from low socioeconomic backgrounds to increase knowledge of PSE readiness. Steps to implement a transition program are presented as well as practical implications and directions for future research. ItemA comparative analysis of Frank Martin’s Ballade for flute and Ballade for trombone.(2015-07-21) Brandt, Emily, 1990-; Lai, Eric C.Swiss composer Frank Martin (1890-1974) wrote six single-movement pieces for six different solo instruments and accompaniment between 1938 and 1972, all titled Ballade. The Ballade for trombone (1940) and the Ballade for flute (1939) are the two shortest of the six, and they share much in common formally, harmonically, and motivically. Martin portrays the soloist as a storyteller in these compositions, and uses several compositional techniques throughout both works to accomplish this. This study compares these two pieces and provides insight into the connections that Martin draws between them. ItemA comparison between an inventive present perfect and the preterite.(2020-04-08) Booth, Olivia C., 1996-; McManness, Linda M.Based on research evidence proving the evolution and expansion of uses of the present perfect tense, a comparison between the preterite and the present perfect should be acknowledged and instructed in the Spanish language classroom. Though they are taught separately, the present perfect and the preterite tenses overlap with regard to their functions and characteristics. Such an overlap confirms the value of an established comparison in the Spanish language classroom. The present study first provides an objective description of the uses of both the present perfect and the preterite tenses. Second, research investigations focused on the present perfect uses in Spain, Latin America, and Mexico will prove the inventiveness of present perfect uses. Finally, data collected from local news articles in the regions of Spain, Latin America, and Mexico are used to present the varying percentages of the present perfect versus preterite usage.