Theses/Dissertations - Human Sciences & Design

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
  • Item
    Association of dietary fiber intake with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes in African American men.
    (December 2022) Young, Madison A., 1996-; Stull, April J.
    An insufficient amount of research has focused on the relationship between dietary intake and type 2 diabetes among African Americans (AA) which are disproportionately affected by the disease. This study examined the association of dietary fiber intake on metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes in AA men with a family history of type 2 diabetes. Measurements of anthropometry, blood pressure, DXA, and blood lipid profiles from the ARTIIS study (parent study) were used in the current study. Also, food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle history questionnaire were used. Outcomes indicated that dietary fiber intake is far below recommendations in AA men. Subjects that consumed higher dietary fiber had lower LDL-C (P≤0.05) and they self-reported currently exercising (P≤0.05). The relationship between dietary fiber and metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes was not evident. Our findings indicate the imperative need to further examine dietary patterns within AA and their influence on metabolic outcomes.
  • Item
    Burnout, diet quality, and sleep quality in college student athletes vs. physically active college students.
    (2022-04-26) Renaldo, Mari, 1995-; Funderburk, LesLee K.
    Burnout in sport may be on the rise given the pressures of an intense training schedule, balancing academics with a social life, eating a healthy diet, and getting adequate rest. College student athletes and physically active college students (PA college students), students that participate in 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity for a minimum of twice per week, were asked to complete an Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients – Short Version. Results showed no significant differences in emotional exhaustion, devaluation, REAPS between athletes and PA college students. However, there was a significant difference between college student athletes and PA college students with the risk for burnout, specifically concerning personal accomplishment. There was a significant difference between college student athletes and PA college students with regards to sleep quality.
  • Item
    Relationship between dietary fiber and measures of mental health.
    (2021-04-29) Mills, Max J. L., 1996-; Greathouse, K. Leigh.
    This study examined the relationship between dietary fiber and mental health among college students. Food frequency data and mental health responses taken as part of the Neuro-regulation in Attachment to God, Human Relationships, and Health study initiated by Baylor University were used to determine potential effect of fiber on mental health. It was found that the odds of being depressed were reduced with higher intakes of insoluble fiber. This relationship persisted after adjusting for participants’ age, sex, and BMI. Our findings indicate that college students may experience a lessening in number and severity of depressive symptoms with increased insoluble dietary fiber intake.
  • Item
    Quality of life assessment in a weight loss intervention.
    (2020-11-09) Rightmer, Lane J., 1992-; Funderburk, LesLee K.
    This study evaluated whether there was a difference in quality of life scores at the end of an intervention that evaluated the effect of leucine supplementation and calorie-restricted diet over a 12-week period in mid-life overweight and obese women. At baseline and conclusion of this intervention, participants were asked to complete a quality of life questionnaire, “Quality of Life, Enjoyment, and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form” (Q-LES-Q-SF) and rank answers from 1-5. Of those participants that successfully lost weight during the intervention, QoL scores improved from an average of 71% to 79%. Our findings show that weight loss and quality of life can be directly associated, and purposeful weight loss can improve overall quality of life.
  • Item
    The impact of dietary acculturation and food availability in the body composition of Division I female international student-athletes.
    (2020-11-20) Cherpe de Souza, Leticia, 1996-; Funderburk, LesLee K.
    Body composition plays an important role in sports in optimizing performance in athletes. Although there is a gap in research concerning international student-athletes, international students with high levels of acculturation to the American diet were found to gain weight, increase the intake of energy-dense and highly processed foods, and decrease the consumption of fruits and vegetables in their first months in the US. In this study, previously collected body composition data was accessed, and international female student-athletes answered surveys that screened for dietary acculturation and food availability levels. Our findings indicate that fat mass (FM) increased in 83.3% of the subjects in the first six months of college, with an average of 3.01 lbs. (p≤ 0.05). In contrast to previous studies on non-athlete international students, higher dietary acculturation increased fat-free mass (FFM) (p≤ 0.05) in our sample. Although not statistically significant, high food availability increased both FM and FFM.
  • Item
    Meals on Wheels : change in Central Texas participants’ self-perceived nutritional health risk and comparison of demographics to national averages.
    (2020-11-17) Onyima, Ifunanya, 1994-; Funderburk, LesLee K.
    Meals on Wheels (MOW), a federally-supported program, provides nutrition support to older adults. Research shows positive correlations between MOW participation and increased health status and quality of life. This study examined the change in MOW Waco (MOWW) participants’ self-reported nutritional health risk and compared prevalence of demographic risk factors associated with malnutrition to national averages. Study sample included 807 MOWW participants who completed a Determine Your Nutritional Health Survey (NRA) and participated in MOW during 2017 and 2018. Results showed 87.2% of participant’s NRA scores remained consistent or decreased while 12.8% of participants had higher scores. Higher rates of three demographic factors (self-reported health status, being a racial/ethnic minority and living in poverty) were found in the MOWW group when compared to national averages. MOWW services may reduce their participants’ nutritional health risk. Demographic risk factors suggest that this area of Texas is in greater need of these services.
  • Item
    Comparison of rice-based versus sucrose-based drinks on the ability to maintain hydration status in ROTC cadets during a physical training event.
    (2020-10-30) Petersen, Hannah L., 1997-; Funderburk, LesLee K.
    It is well established that carbohydrates and electrolytes are needed for fueling during physical activity exceeding 1 hour. Sports drinks are commonly used to replenish carbohydrate and electrolyte losses and provide hydration. The ACSM guidelines recommend sports drinks contain 6-8% carbohydrate; however, rice-based sports drinks typically contain only 4-4.5% carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence the type of carbohydrate in sports drinks had on hydration status during a loadbearing 12-mile road march. To test this, CeraSport®, a rice-based drink, and Gatorade®, a sucrose-based drink, were provided to subjects. Sixteen Reserve Officer Training Corps cadets from a private university completed a blinded randomized controlled trial. Despite the difference in type and amount of carbohydrate, we hypothesized that both sports beverages would provide adequate hydration throughout the event. Hydration status was assessed by urine specific gravity measures and pre- and post-body weight.
  • Item
    Self-perceived nutrition knowledge vs. actual nutrition knowledge and willingness to participate in fad diets.
    (2020-03-06) Anderson, Courtney Quirk, 1996-; Funderburk, LesLee K.
    With the rising obesity epidemic in America, there has also been a dramatic increase in the marketing of “fad diets” for weight loss. However, many of these diets are based on false claims and pseudoscience and can in reality be harmful to one’s long-term physical and mental health. Students were asked to rank their confidence in their level of nutrition knowledge from 1-5, and then complete a basic 20-question nutrition test. Of those most confident in nutrition (ranked themselves at 5), 53.8% had participated in fad diets, and the average score on the quiz was 14.3/20. The results show that more confidence in nutrition knowledge correlates with more willingness to participate in fad diets. However, we found that those more confident in that knowledge did not perform well on the basic nutrition test, with their average score being 71.5%.
  • Item
    Local wellness policies : key barriers of implementation.
    (2017-07-24) Nieft, Jocelyn, 1992-; Funderburk, LesLee K.
    Over a decade after passing the Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act of 2004 and mandate of Local Wellness Policies, school districts are still facing barriers within implementing these policies. The success of these policies are based on strength of wording, appropriate resources and support from senior leadership. To determine possible barriers faced by school districts in McLennan County, Texas, a focus group was conducted with members from five independent school districts and members of each district’s school health advisory council and specifically food service managers. Themes derived from this focus group included: ownership of the local wellness policy, resources, and specific barriers for rural schools. These themes are perceived and potential barriers of implementation of local wellness policies.
  • Item
    Determining the relative validity of a short screener for assessing adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation patients.
    (2017-07-29) Lyles, Patricia J., 1990-; Weems, Mary Kate Halbert (Suzy).
    The purpose of the study was to determine the relative validity of a short screener used to assess dietary compliance to a modified Mediterranean diet in a cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program. Thirty-one participants completed a newly developed short screener in the clinic and an at-home seven-day food journal that was used as a reference to explore validity. A survey was designed and completed by five Registered Dietitians to assess face validity of the screener. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and compare the differences of the reported answer frequencies between both measurement tools. The results of the face validity survey and descriptive statistics determined the screener was not valid. Since the study was a pilot study, the statistical methods used to analyze the data were mainly used as a preliminary way to assess the relative validity. In conclusion, future research should address and implement the necessary changes to improve validation.
  • Item
    Comparison of selected micronutrient intakes between flexible dieting and strict dieting bodybuilders.
    (2017-03-31) Ismaeel, Ahmed, 1993-; Weems, Mary Kate Halbert (Suzy).
    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive assessment of the nutritional habits of competitive bodybuilders, specifically in relation to vitamin and mineral intakes. Data from 41 subjects (30 males and 11 females) were used in analyses. Participants completed a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and diets were analyzed using a computer system. Males consumed less than the RDA of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, potassium, and dietary fiber. Females consumed less than the RDA for vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, potassium, dietary fiber, and iron. There were no significant differences between male flexible and strict dieting bodybuilders when mean nutrient intakes were compared. For females, flexible dieters consumed significantly greater amounts of several nutrients. A large proportion of individuals from all groups consumed less than the recommended amounts of several of the micronutrients. Therefore, competitive bodybuilders should be advised to take their micronutrition into greater consideration.
  • Item
    A pilot study : evaluation of the effectiveness of a cooking class in increasing cancer patients' self-efficacy, sense of control and knowledge.
    (2016-03-20) Chi, Hailin.; Greathouse, K. Leigh.
    Nutrition and cancer patients’ food choices impact treatment outcomes and survival rates. The goal of nutrition education is dietary behavior change, yet it is unclear which educational format is the most effective. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cooking class in increasing cancer patient’s cooking knowledge, self-efficacy and sense of control during treatment and recovery through meal planning and food preparation. A pre-and post-test survey design was implemented on a convenience group. Paired t-tests were performed for pre-and post study comparisons, with independent sample t-tests for between-group comparisons. There was a significant increase in knowledge after the cooking class intervention (p<.05). Subjects with a bachelor’s degree had a higher sense of control (p<.10), compared with those with trade/technical/vocational training. Given the results were validated in a larger patient population, these data suggest that demographic characteristics need to be considered during nutritional educational experiences to enhance the intervention effectiveness.
  • Item
    A case study of Mission Guatemala’s nutrition outreach feeding programs for children in Guatemala.
    (2016-04-19) Gossett, Jakalyn, 1991-; Walter, Janelle Marshall.
    Guatemala is a country with the fourth highest rate of chronic undernutrition in the world and the highest rate in Latin America and the Caribbean [1]. Nutrition initiatives with feeding programs have been incorporated into communities to help alleviate childhood undernourishment. In May 2015, a qualitative descriptive study explored various feeding programs offered in elementary schools in communities near Panajachel, Guatemala with a primary objective to provide up-to-date information on nutrition intervention feeding programs and better assess the performance of these programs. The information gathered in this study aims to facilitate future research with more intense investigation of childhood malnutrition and feeding programs offered in Guatemala.