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ItemThe 2014 Medicaid Expansion, Access to Care, and Heart Attack Mortality(2020-05-21) Liang, Alyssa; Neilson, Bill; University Scholar.; honors collegeIn March 2010, the Affordable Care Act was passed by Congress, including a provision that expanded access to Medicaid to all individuals with an income of 138% of the federal poverty level or less. In National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court struck down the provision that required states to expand Medicaid or lose pre-existing funding, allowing each state to voluntarily make the decision whether to expand Medicaid or not. Medicaid expansion was implemented beginning in January 2014, and as of now 37 states have expanded Medicaid. Medicaid expansion is associated with increased access to care, including decreases in uninsurance, greater utilization of health care services, and better performance on measures of quality to care. The body of research indicated that heart attacks are sensitive to access to care. Delays in seeking care in the event of a heart attack have a significant impact in how much heart muscle can be saved, and people with less access to care may find it more difficult to receive timely care. This study used data from the Health Care Utilization Project to investigate the impact of Medicaid expansion on the proportion of fatal heart attacks. Ultimately, data analysis found that from 2013 to 2016, the proportion of fatal heart attacks decreased significantly in expansion states but did not decrease in non-expansion states, suggesting that Medicaid expansion reduced the proportion of fatal heart attacks. ItemThe 2014 Scottish #IndyRef: How Failure is Still Progress for Scottish NationalismRoyall, Ashlyn; Hamerly, Ivy; University Scholars.; Baylor University.; Honors College.In September of 2014, Scots voted in a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. Though the unionist vote won by a slim margin, the campaign had become much closer than expected. In a last-minute effort to maintain the union, the British government promised further devolution of power, what they called "devo-max," to Scotland if they voted to stay a part of the union. In this thesis, I analyze the development of the Scottish nationalist movement and the progress of the 2014 independence referendum to draw conclusions about what economic and cultural factors affected Scottish support for independence. Then, I explore how the results of the referendum--the promised plan for "devo max"--will likely affect the British state, especially with respect to the development of federalism. Finally, I will look toward the future of Scottish nationalism and identify how broad shifts in political attitudes and values might affect progress of the Scottish nationalist movement going forward. ItemAb Initio Formation Energy Calculations for Defect Complexes in Diamond, ZnSe and CdS for Room-Temperature Quantum Computing(2021-05-21) Dickey, Ethan; Blair, Enrique; Computer Science.; Baylor University.; Honors College - Honors Program.Quantum computers are beginning to demonstrate a potential for practical uses in data security, protein folding, artificial intelligence and machine learning, and economics. Current obstacles to reliable large-scale quantum computers include better decoherence times, improved error correction schemes, and consistent fabrication. Creating a qubit (quantum bit) that can exist at room temperature makes large progress in each of these obstacles while decreasing operational costs (by eliminating the need for cryogenic cooling). Diamond has shown promising results when a defect known as the Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) complex is introduced via doping into the crystal. However, diamond is expensive to fabricate and foundries that can do so are rare. ZnSe and CdS, by contrast, can be grown at lower temperatures and pressures than diamond, and do not require the expensive retooling of foundries for the higher pressure and temperature required in diamond fabrication. This study provides a methodology and computational structure with which to identify semiconductors with similar desirable electronic properties as the NV defect in diamond and identifies potential defects for the two specified semiconductors of interest. This work may guide experimental exploration of quantum technologies based on semiconductor defects and could lead to lower cost, room-temperature qubits that are easily fabricated using the vast infrastructure of the current semiconductor industry. ItemAborting Precedent: A Review of the Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization Decision(2023-05-22) Picco, Travis; Block, Steve; University Scholars.; Baylor University.In June of 2022, the United States Supreme Court announced a decision to abandon the abortion precedents established by Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey in favor of new standards on abortion regulation and permissibility. The Court, through its ruling in Dobbs v. Women’s Health Organization, discarded almost 50 years of long-standing case law and returned the power to regulate abortion procedures at any and all stages to the state. While proponents of the decision agree with the Court’s reasoning, many opponents argue that the abdication of precedent is unwarranted and dangerous. This thesis reviews the Dobbs case in its entirety with sections dedicated to the issue’s history, the majority opinion, and the dissenting opinion; finally, the decision is analyzed from a legal standpoint to determine if the Court was justified in its decision to overrule Roe v. Wade. ItemAbuse, Exposure, and Female Agency in the Short Stories of Emilia Pardo Bazán(2014-04-29) Lee, Kathryn; Larson, Paul Earl.; Spanish.; Baylor University.; Honors College.The purpose of this thesis is to examine and analyze the short stories of Emilia Pardo Bazán. This nineteenth century Spanish writer uses narratives, historical retellings, fables, and other notable stylistic elements to expose the controversies surrounding women in the nineteenth century Spain. She confronts abuse, incest, the lack of female agency, problems with gender stereotypes and other inequalities women faced and continue to encounter today. Analyzing Pardo Bazán’s short stories: “The Torn Lace,” “The Red Stockings,” “Memento,” “First Love,” “The Oldest Story,” “Sister Apparition,” “Piña” and “Revolver” reveals to readers the variety of styles Pardo Bazán employs, as well as her profound statement on the status of genders in Spain. ItemAccessible Translations for an English-Speaking AudienceCameron, Kendra; Souza-Fuertes, Lizbeth; University Scholar.; honors collegeThis thesis presents five short stories that have been translated from the original Spanish versions into English. Though some of these short stories are widely known and celebrated throughout the Spanish-speaking world, these small insights into cultures and experiences of Spanish speakers throughout the world remains largely unfamiliar to most native English speakers. Therefore, this sampling of short stories from different authors, different time periods, and different countries is designed to give the English reader a brief and general overview into the breadth of culture and experience that the Spanish language encompasses in a manner that is easily understandable and enjoyable to read. ItemAccuracy and Precision in Marker-based Motion Capture(2019-05-22) Young, Vivian; Rylander, Jonathan.; Mechanical Engineering.; Baylor University.; Jenny Tavares; Honors College.One of the biggest challenges in marker-based motion capture is maintaining accuracy and precision. The prominence of this issue is due to the common method of placing markers by hand, the reliance on anatomical landmarks, and soft tissue artifacts. The resulting error in the data translates kinematically, which may lead to faulty results and conclusions. However, accuracy and precision can be improved by determining an appropriate motion capture model to use, using marker placement devices, or by utilizing medical imaging. By compiling information from studies and literature in the motion capture field, this thesis provides an overview of sources of error and how to combat error in marker-based motion capture and may act as an introductory resource to these topics. In addition, this thesis presents preliminary validation testing that was performed on a marker replacement device. ItemThe Acquisition of the Possessive /-s/ Morpheme(2013-05-24) Goble, Grace; Grebenyova, Lydia; Language and Linguistics.; Baylor University.; Honors College.In this study, we investigated children’s understanding and production of the English complex possessive phrases. Children are able to learn language without any instruction other than what they hear from the adults around them. This input, however, is not labeled or organized in any way. Due to the homophony between the possessive and plural constructions in English, there must be some way in which children organize and learn these rules. During the study, we presented children ages 3-5 with different options on how to form complex possessive structures. Surprisingly, their preferred construction is also one that Universal Grammar predicts never will occur. By looking at how they chose to form the construction and how adults form the construction, we hoped to shed more light on not only the children’s understanding of the structure, but the adults’ as well. ItemAcquisition of Theta Roles in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants(2013-05-23) Taylor, Lauren; Weaver, Charles A. III, (Chuck).; University Scholars.; Southwestern Hearing School for the Deaf; Baylor University.; Honors College.; University Scholars.Deaf children with cochlear implants often display delayed language acquisition. As a result, researchers refer to “hearing age,” the time elapsed since the implantation of hearing aids, in addition to chronological age, the time elapsed since birth. This subpopulation may be a possible new avenue of study for language development. I compared the ability of 7 children enrolled at the Southwestern Hearing School for the Deaf as they determined the subject and object roles in a sentence. Each participant was read a sentence and asked to select the correct corresponding picture. The sentences had varying levels of difficulty depending on the number of possible subjects and objects within the sentences. As expected, older children (measured by hearing age) made fewer errors. All children made more errors as the sentences became more complex. The relatively small sample size precludes strong conclusions, but provides tentative support for separating hearing age from chronological age. ItemActions Speak Louder Than Words: Men's Ideas And Women's Actions In Western European Church History(2023-01-11) Sharp, Rebekah; Marvel, Elizabeth; University Scholars.; Baylor University.Evangelical organizations like the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) have recently made headlines for their strong positions against women in the pulpit. However, the debate on women in Church leadership is not a new one. The basis of the argument against women’s ability to lead has evolved, stagnated, and then evolved again. This thesis will analyze primary sources from ancient, medieval, and Reformation eras, attempting to trace male attitudes toward women’s abilities to lead. Specifically, this paper will focus on the primary sources analyzing Genesis’s creation and fall stories. Additionally, it will include the stories of real women who have directly contradicted these men’s theories about their capabilities. By analyzing the work of male philosophers, theologians, pastors, and female martyrs, anchoresses, and laywomen, I will aim to show how male opinions on women often change after encountering strong, capable women who challenge their previously held beliefs. ItemActive Catharsis: Unleashing an Athlete's Spiritual and Emotional Energies(2014-05-01) Johnson, Emily; Meyer, Andrew; Health Science Studies.; Baylor University.; Honors College.During strenuous physical activity athletes may experience catharsis, life mentality changes, and flow (Scheff, 1979; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Nesti, 2007; Watson, 2007). Beyond these experiences, this thesis examines spiritual elements of strenuous physical activity combining concepts of catharsis and flow. Termed active catharsis, this thesis defines the positive psychological and spiritual experiences of endurance athletes. The concept of catharsis is central for examinations of powerful emotional experiences because “within a sporting context a more spiritual notion of catharsis can be detected in the lives of athletes” (Nesti, p. 166). Furthermore, active catharsis is only fully experienced when athletes achieve flow, feeling “totally absorbed” (Hunter and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) in the endurance activity. Data was collected at the 2012 and 2013 Great Brazos Relay using themes found in catharsis and flow literature. Results indicate participants at endurance events experience active catharsis through feelings of life mentality change, emotional release, and flow. ItemAcupuncture Research and Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United States: A Scoping Review(2023-05-22) Scheffrahn, Katherine; Boddie, Stephanie; Neuroscience.; Baylor University.The purpose of this scoping review is to assess the existing literature on acupuncture and racial and ethnic minorities in the United States and to identify knowledge gaps and future research priorities. The research and practice of acupuncture has grown significantly over the last few decades, which necessitates an examination of whether researchers have successfully represented populations who have been historically overlooked in medical research. Based on the results of analyzing the data of 83 included publications, several gaps in the research have been identified. Future research should focus on rural areas, as well as Southern and Midwestern metropolitan areas. Research should prioritize the underrepresented Pacific Islander, Native American, and multiracial minority populations. Finally, research should focus on examining access and barriers to acupuncture treatment for racial and ethnic minority groups. Based on this scoping review, a systematic review is recommended to allow for a more focused research question and to carry out a complete literature review. ItemAddressing Cervical Cancer Prevention in McLennan County, TX(2022-05-20) Jones, Sarah; Abel, Erika; University Scholars.Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to cause up to 99.7% of all cervical cancers. Two highly effective cervical cancer prevention methods exist – vaccination against HPV and cervical screening. Studies have documented the motivating effects of clinical intervention on preventative care compliance. Through the use of Bayesian time-series forecasting and a thorough healthcare needs assessment, this study identifies McLennan County, Texas as a candidate for population-level cervical cancer care intervention. Currently, only 54.9% of Texas residents have completed the series of HPV vaccinations, and predictive modeling anticipates stagnation in the rate of vaccination within McLennan County, a county with a high percentage of people who experience barriers to healthcare. Annual health promotions clinics that combine the services of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening can be implemented to address this problem. Cervical cancer is an easily preventable disease, thus effective clinical strategies for its prophylaxis should be introduced to medically underserved populations of McLennan County. ItemAddressing Postpartum Depression in the Primary Care Setting: Current Screening Practices and Quality Improvement(2021-05-21) Flanders, Abigail; Whitt, Jason; University Scholars.; Baylor University.; Dr. Kristen JohnsonAs the family’s primary point of interaction with the healthcare system in the postpartum period, the pediatric primary care setting offers an invaluable opportunity to identify parents suffering from postpartum depression and refer them for treatment. However, research from the American Academy of Pediatrics indicates that physicians frequently underutilize opportunities to screen parents for the condition, and even those who do screen positive for depressive symptoms may never receive help. This failure to diagnose and treat postpartum depression on a consistent basis ultimately harms both parental and infant health. This thesis examines the current state of the problem, beginning with a brief history of the medicalization of postpartum depression. After giving some general background on the condition, this thesis offers a multivariate analysis of the incidence of postpartum depression in a private pediatric clinic in Northern Virginia. Finally, the referral practices of this clinic are examined, and suggestions are made for quality improvement. ItemAddressing Racism in the Church: A Historical, Sociological, Theological, and Practical Account(2020-05-22) Bost, Jessica; Carnes, Natalie; University Scholar.; Baylor University.; Mosaic WacoIn the past decade, a growing body of literature has examined the pernicious relationship between racism and Christianity, making it an increasingly pressing issue for modern-day ministers to address. However, many are either ill-equipped or unmotivated to take practical steps to address racial injustice and inequality in their church and community. This thesis is an interdisciplinary synthesis of cultural commentary on racism’s structural embeddedness in American history and systems, and theological consideration of the church’s complicity. The American church has discarded Scripture’s robust understanding of God’s redemptive Kingdom, embodied in Jesus’ holistic ministry, for a hyper-individualized and disembodied theology unable to address the realities of racism in America. In doing so, the church has not only enabled, but historically supported racial ideology that is fundamentally opposed to the Gospel of reconciliation. Through critical study of racism’s roots and modern ecclesial attempts to rectify its effects, this thesis suggests accessible and effective ways forward that account for common pitfalls, and go beyond well-intentioned colorblind approaches. ItemAdvanced Kinetics of Novel, Non-peptidic Thiosemicarbazone Inhibitors of Cathepsin B(2012-05-02) Snyder, Lindsey; Trawick, Mary Lynn.; Chemistry and Biochemistry.; Honors College.The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B is considered to be an attractive target for the synthesis of anticancer drugs due to its over-expression in cancerous cells and its involvement in tumor formation. Among its many roles in the advancement of several pathological events including Arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease, cathepsin B is primarily responsible for initiating cancer metastasis as it facilitates the degradation of the extracellular matrix. In order to impede the process of angiogenesis and to prevent the spread of cancerous cells, this study aims to identify an effective, non-toxic inhibitor of cathepsin B from a library of novel, non-peptidic thiosemicarbazone (TSC) compounds which have shown to be effective inhibitors of the cysteine protease cathepsin L. To evaluate the compounds’ inhibitory effects, the concentration of the TSC inhibitors causing a 50% reduction in enzymatic activity (IC50 value) was determined. After an optimization of assay conditions, experiments were performed in a 96-well microplate using the substrate Z-arginylarginyl-aminomethylcoumarin which reacts with cathepsin B and releases the fluorescent product, aminomethylcoumarin. Advanced kinetic studies of the most potent inhibitors were performed to determine the compounds’ mechanism of action. All three of the compounds studied exhibited reversible inhibition. Two of these inhibitors, a bromo-substituted, acetylated phenolic benzophenone TSC and a bromo-substituted, di-trifluoromethyl benzophenone TSC exhibited time dependent inhibition; whereas, the monohydroxy-tetramethozy-substituted benzophenone TSC displayed classical competitive inhibition against cathepsin B activity. By developing a database consisting of TSC compounds with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range, it is possible to examine the kinetics and structure-activity relationship of TSC inhibitors which could potentially be used medically to decrease tumor progression and cancer metastasis. These studies represent a collaborative project between the Trawick (biochemical) and Pinney (synthetic) Laboratories. ItemAdverse Life Events on Disordered Eating Behaviors, Negative Self-Regard, and Body Image Disturbance(2013-05-24) Dowdy, Blake; Limbers, Christine A.; Psychology.; Baylor University.; Honors College.Individuals with eating disorders typically report greater levels of body dissatisfaction, lower self esteem, and increased body image disturbance. Previous studies have demonstrated the association between eating disorders and negative self-evaluations, highlighting the importance of low self-regard in the development of potentially detrimental eating patterns. The transition from high school to college often induces significant anxiety, disrupting established perceptions and evaluations. Many individuals redirect a universal need for control away from these psychologically stressful situations to areas they can perceive effectiveness, namely eating behaviors and an adjusted body image. The current study observes an association between adverse life events, a distorted self-image, disturbed body esteem, and abnormal eating behaviors in a sample of undergraduate students. ItemThe Aesthetics of Wartime: A Review of Women’s Fashion in the 1920s and 1960s(2023-05-22) McKeever, Mallory; Divita, Lorynn; Professional Writing and Rhetoric.Fashion has operated as a reflection of humanity and its role in history from the time that Adam and Eve first fitted fig leaves to their body to hide their shame. Beginning with a novice Aristotelian logical argument and a historical understanding and fashion analysis of the 1920s and 1960s, it is clear that women’s fashion has significant cultural importance. This thesis answers the question “Does fashion matter?” by looking at the zeitgeist of two post-war decades and connecting it with fashion trends. The theory of the zeitgeist states that fashion is a reflection of the cultural climate guided by the current dominating events, ideals, and attitudes. A fashion count analysis was also conducted on Vogue US’ first issues for the months of March and September in the 1920s and 1960s. The zeitgeist allows a connection to be drawn between historical context and the fashion of that time to prove that fashion is a fundamental and vital part of history and culture. ItemAfrican Women's Lives: Historical Narratives and Literary Depictions in Post-Colonial Fiction(2020-05-21) Akahara, Ndidi; Walden, Sarah; Economics.; Baylor University.; honors collegeThis thesis analyzes the impact that literary works by female African authors have had on the lived experiences of African people. Most of their works depict life in the early post-colonial and colonial periods in Sub-Saharan Africa. I argue that through their depictions of women's lives, they address themes concerning the individual's relation to the collective. By placing the novels within their historical context, I show that issues of gender equality, class, culture and politics are at the forefront of these works. Their approach to women’s rhetoric uplifts, projects and dignifies the voices and lives of ordinary African women. We as readers, historians, literary critics and scholars have much to learn from the deeply complex works of these women. As authors, they invoke the sympathetic imagination within us, as women, they are symbols of history, dignity and the ultimate triumph of the human spirit. This thesis is therefore not just a testament to their characters, but also to their persons. ItemAgainst All Odds : A Comparative Study Of Student Success In Four Schools In Rural Western Kenya(2016-08-08) Adams, Lindsay; Baker, Lisa; University Scholars.; University Scholars.In a Kenyan student’s life, poverty often brings with it malnutrition, disease, death of parents, and poor education. This study compared four primary schools in rural Kenya, one scoring an average of 492 out of 500 on the important Form 6 national examination. Administrators, teachers, parents, and the students who took the test were interviewed from the two highest- and the two lowest-achieving schools in the district. Participants were blinded to the outcome of interest. Predictor variables included school facilities and supplies, provision of a mid-day meal, student variables, and teacher variables. Findings showed that the school with the poorest facilities scored the highest. However, this school was the only one where students were provided with a mid-day meal. Highest test scores also were associated with the lowest class size and the highest attendance by both students and teachers. Successful students had teachers who spent at least twice as much time with their students one-on-one outside of the classroom. Other characteristics most common among the highest-achieving students were living with two adults, being happier, and being more future-oriented in their understanding of the purpose of school. These findings indicate a sustained commitment of the community to help these children succeed against all odds. A school with scrap- metal buildings and dirt floors led their students to overcome the many challenges they face by providing nourishment and highly invested teachers and instilling hope within a caring environment.